Sleep’s-Memory role discovered!

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The mechanism by which a good night’s sleep improves learning and memory has been discovered by scientists.

The team in China and the US used advanced microscopy to witness new connections between brain cells – synapses – forming during sleep.

Their study,  showed even intense training could not make up for lost sleep.

Experts said it was an elegant and significant study, which uncovered the mechanisms of memory.

It is well-known that sleep plays an important role in memory and learning. But what actually happens inside the brain has been a source of considerable debate.

They then looked inside the living brain with a microscope to see what happened when the animals were either sleeping or sleep deprived.

Their study showed that sleeping mice formed significantly more new connections between neurons – they were learning more.

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A connection between two brain cells And by disrupting specific phases of sleep, the research group showed deep or slow-wave sleep was necessary for memory formation.

During this stage, the brain was “replaying” the activity from earlier in the day.

Prof Wen-Biao Said: “Finding out sleep promotes new connections between neurons is new, nobody knew this before.

“We thought sleep helped, but it could have been other causes, and we show it really helps to make connections and that in sleep the brain is not quiet, it is replaying what happened during the day and it seems quite important for making the connections.”

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Analysis

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This is just the latest piece of science to highlight the importance of sleep.

 

A new reason for sleep was discovered last year when experiments showed the brain used sleep to wash away waste toxins built up during a hard day’s thinking.

However, there are concerns that people are not getting enough sleep.

Prof Russell Foster argued that society had become “supremely arrogant” in ignoring the importance of sleep, leading to “serious health problems”.

These include:

  • Cancer
  • Heart disease
  • Type-2 diabetes
  • Infections
  • Obesity

The reward for more sleep, Prof Foster argues, is we would all be “better human beings.”

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USMLE Step 1 Students Guidebook

USMLE-logo2

The Step 1 examination is the first component of the USMLE and is taken by medical students and graduates seeking to practice medicine in the United States. The overall purpose of the Step 1 exam is to assess an individual’s basic science knowledge. The content that comprises this multiple choice exam is organized into general science principles and individual organ systems. Most of the questions place a strong emphasis on the application of basic science principles in the practice of clinical medicine.

USMLE is 3 step Exam which provides essential Gateway to move and study USA. This license Examination provides Convenience chance to talented students to achieve practical skills and residency abroad

Just like – A driver who wish to drive a vehicle, he must acquire a driving license, Similarly A Doctor who desires to Practice and pursue his Career abroad (USA), he/she must have a License to operate which he/she can achieve by Passing through USMLE

WHY TO DO USMLE ?

USMLE Not only commits your access point to settle in USA but it is acceptable in Middle East Countries Like Qatar, Dubai and other Countries.

USMLE is more preferable in Middle East than other Licensing Examination and Gives you the Edge over the other candidates to achieve residency

HOW TO QUALIFY USMLE Step 1 ?

EXAMINATION CONTENT

Step 1 includes test items in the following content areas:

  • Anatomy
  • Behavioural sciences
  • Biochemistry
  • Microbiology
  • Pathology
  • Pharmacology
  • Physiology
  • Interdisciplinary topics, such as nutrition, genetics, and aging

BOOKS

  • Kaplan USMLE Step 1 Lecture Note  – Anatomy, Behavioural Science , Microbiology, Immunology, Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Physiology.

  • Goljan Rapid Review Pathology
  • Bio statics and Epidemiology
  • Kaplan Medical USMLE Medical Ethics – 100 Cases (Behavioural science)
  • USMLE First Aid 2014 (For All Subject Reviews)

CHOOSE THE RIGHT RESOURCES

Choosing the right resources will depend partly on your learning style, but there are a few that are must-haves.

1. Kaplan Series

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Kaplan Medical Series

Kaplan series consist of set of Books with Anatomy, Microbiology, Immunology, Pharmacology, Biochemistry, Physiology Subject.

It comes with 17 DVD’s of Video Content related to subjects.

Pathology From Kaplan should be Avoided instead it’s better to go for Goljan, It’s the best

2. First Aid for the USMLE Step 1

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First Aid USMLE Step 1

I don’t say this for very many things, but First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 is a must-have.

First Aid is essentially a very condensed version of most of the things you’ll learn in your first and second year of medical school (at least the material that will be covered on the USMLE exam). If you use this book during your curriculum, you’ll be able to have a summary of the things you’ve learned,

One tip I have is to not spend a ton of time on the biochemistry section of First Aid. Understand the key steps that have to do with certain diseases (e.g. what does lead poisoning or B12 deficiency effect), but don’t try to memorize full pathways.

3. Rapid Review Pathology by Goljan

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Goljan Pathology Review

This book is similar to First Aid in that the material is condensed into bullet points. However, it has more information about the “why” of diseases than First Aid.

It gives great explanations about pathophysiology and this material is stressed heavily on Step 1.

4. A Question Bank

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QBANK USMLE World

There’s always the debate about whether Kaplan or USMLE World is the better question bank. USMLE world is better and you will love it.U world is an online testing service software with 2200 bank of question pool

The thing that impress the most about USMLE World was how similar the questions on the QBank were to those on the actual exam. When I came to the test, I felt as though I was just taking another set of questions from USMLE World.

Also, the explanations of questions are great. They give detailed explanations of why the right answer is right and why the wrong answers are wrong. This made the QBank a very efficient study tool.

So, It is recommended buying the QBank for the amount of time you have committed solely to your USMLE review (probably 2-3 months) Costing $159.

Study strategy and Schedule

Month 1-2. Sunday to Friday read a new section in First Aid USMLE and the corresponding section in Goljan’s book. Read new material in the morning , new material in the afternoon and review the material from the day at night . The night review would sometimes include QBank questions on the related topics. On Saturday review the things that I had studied in the previous days. This would include questions about the topics.

Take breaks at times during my studies to go play games, Exercise, or watch TV. I study a lot better when I take breaks between. You might be different.

Your main goal in these months Should be to finish going through First Aid and Goljan twice by two weeks before the test date.

Month 3. This is where you should start doing more questions from Qbank U world. Finish most of First Aid and Goljan.

Test day. On test day, make sure you bring snacks and food. It’s a very, very long test. I would also recommend taking all of your breaks.

So, with all of this, you will able to surpass your target score . Again, this is what work mostly and may not work as well for you.

But, KAPLAN, USMLE World, First Aid and Goljan Pathology are top-notch resources no matter your study preferences.

STUDY TIPS

  1. If you counter any hard topics which Mold Hard bitten time while referring Kaplan Series then you Must Watch video lectures included within Kaplan series

For which Subject i should watch video Lectures?

  • Physiology Video lecture are Mandatory
  • Behavioural Science Video Lecture Should be Must Seen
  • Refer Genetic videos in Biochemistry Section
  • Pharmacology Lectures
  1. First complete your Kaplan lecture and you don’t need to watch videos for each topic. go for it only when you don’t understand the topic. There is no need to watch Kaplan DVDs of all subjects. But pharmacology and behavioural sciences are a must.
  2. No Text Book is necessary, Don’t waste your time in reading Full Content of textbook, it’s Unnecessary and it would not efficacious.
  3. Orient yourself
  4. .Join Library or Peaceful Environment

  5. Start with Easy Subjects Like Physiology and Biochemistry

  6. Don’t Panic yourself and take distant from Family affairs and issues

  7. Consistency and Focus is essential

  8. First read is all about understanding and making concepts. Don’t emphasize on cramming at this stage

  9. First Read on All Subjects can take about 3 Months, so be patience

  10. Stay away from Cross Questions from Position Holders which may depress you.

  11. Turn off your cell phones when Exams are around the corner.

EXAM FORMAT

  • USMLE Step 1 Exams are Conducted in pro metric centre in Karachi and Islamabad
  • The exam is an eight-hour computer-based test taken in a single-day,
  • From 1st January to 15th the USMLE Exams are not conducted due to General Holidays in United States, so you not apply in these days
  • Before Starting the Exam you will be shown a tutorial Video of about 12 mins, Showing Pattern regarding exams. But you can skip to save your time by watching it on the web before Exam
  • The exam consists on 8 Blocks in which questions of different Subjects are randomly arranged
  • In each Block there are 46 questions to answer, Mostly based on clinically scenario type
  • Time Limit for each block is 60 Min which consist of 46 questions, that means you will have 78 seconds to answer each question
  • During whole exam time, the test taker is allotted a cumulative 45 minutes (during the test day) for personal breaks.
  • To increase your Stamina and Concentration during this lengthy Exam you must use CNS stimulants as Caffeine and avoid amphetamine drugs
  • Be Confident, Don’t Panic, Stay Focused
  • Do Easy Questions First and Later Difficult time taking questions
  • Attempt Every Question as there is No Negative Marking
  • Take Deep Breath for anxiety and Panic

Total Time allowed for this Examination is 8 hours including your 1 hour Break time and are 322 question to reply

EXAM FEES

  • Entire exam fees is about $1030 ?
  • Including the USMLE Qbank 2 month Subscription Costing $159

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p>Total Price = $1180

Answer of Queries and feedback

  • ideal time to attempt for USMLE is in Final year MBBS
  • every one has his own style of study. u need to schedule ur time for studies n other stuff.
  • DON’T STUDY ONLY, DO OTHER WORK ALSO like watching tv etc
  • Pointless efforts are never productive, it’s not speed, its direction which takes you to the right place
  • last read to First Aid after uworld along with Uworld self-assessment online and you’re ready for the exam.
  • Note: Do first aid and uworld very well. They cover almost everything asked in exam.

It’s about time to focus on cancer preventions

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The globe is facing a “tidal wave” of cancer, and restrictions on alcohol and sugar need to be considered, say World Health Organization.

It predicts the number of cancer cases will reach 24 million a year by 2035, but half could be prevented.

The WHO said there was now a “real need” to focus on cancer prevention by tackling smoking, obesity and drinking.

The World Cancer Research Fund said there was an “alarming” level of naivety about diet’s role in cancer.

Fourteen million people a year are diagnosed with cancer, but that is predicted to increase to 19 million by 2025, 22 million by 2030 and 24 million by 2035.

The developing world will bear the brunt of the extra cases

The director of the WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer,  “The global cancer burden is increasing and quite markedly, due predominately to the ageing of the populations and population growth.

Avertible Causes:

These are major sources of preventable cancer included:

  • Smoking

  • Infections

  • Alcohol

  • Obesity and inactivity

  • Radiation, both from the sun and medical scans

  • Air pollution and other environmental factors

  • Delayed parenthood, having fewer children and not breastfeeding

For most countries, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. However, cervical cancer dominates in large parts of Africa.

Dr Chris Wild, WHO: "We're not going to be able to address this problem by simply improving treatment"
Dr Chris Wild, WHO: “We’re not going to be able to address this problem by simply improving treatment”
 The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause. It is thought wider use of the HPV and other vaccines could prevent hundreds of thousands of cancers.

Prevention had a “crucial role in combating the tidal wave of cancer which we see coming across the world”.

In relation to alcohol, for example, we’re all aware of the acute effects, whether it’s car accidents or assaults, but there’s a burden of disease that’s not talked about because it’s simply not recognised, specifically involving cancer.

“The extent to which we modify the availability of alcohol, the labelling of alcohol, the promotion of alcohol and the price of alcohol – those things should be on the agenda.”

He said there was a similar argument to be had with sugar fuelling obesity, which in turn affected cancer risk.

Map showing cancer deaths across the world

Meanwhile, a survey of 2,046 people in the UK by the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) suggested 49% do not know that diet increases the risk of developing cancer.

Amanda McLean, general manager for the WCRF, said: “It’s very alarming to see that such a large number of people don’t know that there’s a lot they can do to significantly reduce their risk of getting cancer.

About a third of the most common cancers could be prevented through being a healthy weight, eating a healthy diet and being regularly physically active.

“These results show that many people still seem to mistakenly accept their chances of getting cancer as a throw of the dice, but by making lifestyle changes today, we can help prevent cancer tomorrow.”

It advises a diet packed with vegetables, fruit, and wholegrain; cutting down on alcohol and red meat; and junking processed meat completely.

“People can cut their risk of cancer by making healthy lifestyle choices, but it’s important to remember that the government and society are also responsible for creating an environment that supports healthy lifestyles.

“It’s clear that if we don’t act now to curb the number of people getting cancer, we will be at the heart of a global crisis in cancer care within the next two decades.”

Research: CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF SEMESTER AND ANNUAL SYSTEM

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Research Methodology

In this research, the main instrument for collecting primary data is questionnaire, Questionnaire, which consists the following questions and objectives.

  • Which system of examination Provides good grading criteria?
  • In which system of examination, students can obtain better marks.
  • In which system of examination Students can get better job opportunities
  • Which system Provides thorough understanding of concepts?
  • Under which system academic goals are focused?
  • In which system students does found busier in academic activities?
  • In which system Students does tested through different techniques?
  • Which system show better presentation skills?
  • In which system Students are academically over burden.
  • In which system, students are continuously Evaluated ?
  • To which system, teachers give consideration and concentration?
  • Which system is better for learning?

And Lastly Comparative study between Annual and Semester System of B Com and BBA students.

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Strength Of Research

The data collected through questionnaire give a realistic view of both systems of examination.
Researchers have personally collected data by face to-face meeting with students as well contacted them telephonically. This data is free from any bias and misinterpretation.

1: Which system of examination Provides good grading criteria?

Now we will see that how the students giving their responses to the effectiveness of both the systems. The data have collected through questionnaire from students of different institutions. The data show the following result regarding which system of examination provides good grading criteria. In compliance to this question, shows that 74% students out of 500 students have given preference to semester system and 20% students were in favour of annual system and remaining 6% students showed their tendency towards both systems. The questionnaire result can also be accessible with the help of diagram and pie chart as under.

Untitled1
As clear from diagram and pie chart, most of the students inclined towards semester system of examination as far as better grading criteria is concerned. They distinguish that it is semester system in which students make good grades than other examination systems only 6% students favour both systems for better performance in examination

but overall it shows that majority of students favor semester system than other system.

2: In which system of examination, students can obtain better marks?


A questionnaire had distributed among 500 students of different colleges and institutions. In response, 420 students responded with semester system of examination and only 80 students showed their propensity towards annual systems, it means that 84% students out of 500 were favoured with semester system of examination. They consider that better marks can obtained through semester system of examination and only 16% were in favor of annual system. The data result is also presented with the help of figure as under.

CHART16

The figure illustrates the higher tendency level of student’s responses with favor of semester system and low-level with annual system.

3: In which system of examination Students can get better job opportunities?

The data collected through this questionnaire exhibits 250 students satisfy with semester system. They said that under semester system students could get jobs comparatively easily because students are up to date and secured better marks as well. Other 130 responded with annual system and remaining 120 students responded with both systems, 50% students  replied their views in favor of semester system of examination, 26% students showed their curiosity in annual system of examination and rest of 24% students have given their responses to both systems. We can also see the data presentation through diagrammatically as under.

CHART17

The questionnaire result show that students penchant regarding job opportunities and better job chances comes through semester system of education than other system.

4: Which system provides a thorough understanding of concept?


In compliance to this question, 350 students replied in favor of semester system out of 500, which shows that 70% students have given their assent for semester system, 16% , which were consisted 80 respondents, have given their consent for annual system. Other of 14%, which respondents have given their views for both system. The data have demonstrated with the help of the following diagram and chart.

CHART18

Most of the students from different institutes have participated in this questionnaire, researchers asked about the concept understanding, majority of the respondents have shown their tendency towards semester system, and in this regard, the above pie chart is evidence.

It seems that the large number of students believe that concept develops with semester system compare to annual system.

5: Under which system academic goals are focused?


In response, 45% students out of 500 responded that semester system is better than annual system because academic goals can easily achieved under semester system, 31% replied that annual system is better than semester system and remaining 24% replied both system are similar regarding focused academic goals. The collected data has postulated with the following diagram.

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The diagram presents the overall picture regarding annual and semester system of the inquired question.

It means semester system better in academic goals than annual system, and some students expressed their consents both system are equal in this regard.

6: In which system Students does tested through different techniques?


As compared to annual system, semester system has proved better. Most of the students who were participated and replied that semester system is better than annual system, 92% respondents out of 500 have shown their consent to semester system , they replied that student learns more in this system, only 8% of the population replied that annual system is better than semester. The data has presented in diagram is as under.

CHART14

It has cleared  from the above diagram that majority of the students shows the tendency towards semester system.

7: Which system show better presentation skills?

It is common practice that students who are studying under semester system are better in presentation and management skills than students of annual system are. Respondents have given their answer, when asked which system provides better presentation skills, the majority of student’s inclination towards semester system, which consist 500 students, all students have agreed that semester system provides better presentation skills than annual system. As we, can see responses with the help of following chart.

Untitled6

All Respondents have absolutely in favor of semester system of examination, which shows 100% tendency towards it.

8: In which system students are academically overburden?

Under annual system, examination held at the end of each session /year, therefore most of the students does overburden academically. In semester system, examination held at the end of each semester, as course outlines divided into semesters, therefore students performs comparatively better. In this regard, 56% students have given their negative views about annual system, 16% respondents against semester system and remaining 28% responded to both systems. The outcome of the questionnaire in this regard is as under:

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The diagram shows that majority of students agree that we do have overburdened in annual system as compared to semester system of examination.

9: In which system students are continuously, Evaluated ?

Semester system provides opportunity for students to polish their selves with great extent through presentations, mid-term examinations, group discussions and submission of assignments etc with regular intervals.

In compliance to this question, 84% students responded for semester system, 10% students showed their consent for annual system and 6% respondents showed their expression for both systems.

CHART8

The above data from respondents shows that students can properly evaluate and appraise in semester system than annual system of examination.

10: To which system, teachers give consideration and concentration?


As we know that annual system takes more time to close the session, therefore the propensity of the teachers in semester system is greater than of annual system to teach with proper road map, full consideration and attention. The data collected through this questionnaire shows that majority of groups, that is 90 % responded to semester system , 6% responded for annual.

CHART19

The Blue Section shows the propensity of those students who showed their interest in semester system. Therefore, it is clear that targeted groups have given more time, consideration and concentration to semester system of examination.

11: Which system is better for learning?


In compliance to this question, 58 % students responded to semester system, they have agreed that semester system provides best learning opportunities. They consider that in semester system students’ goes through different techniques of learning, which are presentation skills, group discussions, assignment etc. On other hand 20% said that annual system of examination is best source of learning, and rest 22% replied that both systems of examination are better for learning perspective.

CHART12

They also said that learning depend upon students,  neither on examination system. We can also see the following diagram for further explanation.

Comparative results of B.Com / B.B.A  of two years of Government College of Management Sciences, Peshawar city, Pakistan

We have taken Government College of commerce, University of Peshawar,  Pakistan, as a sample. As  we know that, University of Peshawar conducts examination of B.Com through Annual system through out Province whereas B.B.A examination conducts through semester system, but here readers will observe visible difference in results of same college of same university. The semester system of examination is better in respect of aggregate as well in individual results than annual system of examination as actual data/results of year 2010-2011 reveals itself :

Passed

In 2011, there were 265 students appeared for examination, in which 135 have passed and 130 students have failed whereas in same year 265 students have given the B.B.A examination in which 255 students have passed and 10 have failed.

The above data evident, that the Failure ratio was comparatively high in annual system of examination

Reference: International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences
September 2012, Vol. 2, No. 9

Migraine sufferers ‘may benefit from magnet therapy’

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There is a variety of treatments on offer, but no cure

A magnet device can be used to treat some types of migraine, new Research advises.

The NICE says although there is limited evidence, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may help ease symptoms in some patients.

It says that the procedure is still relatively new and that more data is needed about its long-term safety and efficacy.

But it may be useful for patients for whom other treatments have failed.

“Huge numbers of sufferers find their lives blighted by migraine”

Migraine is common – it affects about one in four women and one in 12 men in the UK.

There are several types –

  • with and without aura
  • with or without headache – and several treatment options, including common painkillers, such as paracetamol.

Although there is no cure for migraine, it is often possible to prevent or lessen the severity of attacks.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation(TMS), under the supervision of a specialist doctor – it  would be a cost-effective therapy for Migraine

“TMS involves using a portable device that is placed on the scalp to deliver a brief magnetic pulse.”

NICE says doctors and patients might wish to try TMS, but they should be aware about the treatment’s uncertainties. Reduction in migraine
symptoms may be moderate.

Prof Peter Goadsby,  said many migraine patients stood to benefit from trying TMS.

In a trial in 164 patients, TMS worked twice as compared to placebo therapy and about 40% were pain-free two hours after using the device.

Wendy Thomas, said: “Huge numbers of sufferers find their lives blighted by migraine. The TMS may help deliver brighter futures to many people for whom other treatments have not worked.

‘Sticky balls’ may stop cancer spreading

Cancer-killing "sticky balls" containing cancer-killing protein called Trail
Cancer-killing “sticky balls” containing cancer-killing protein called Trail

Cancer-killing “sticky balls” can destroy tumour cells in the blood and may prevent cancers spreading, early research suggests.

The most dangerous and deadly stage of a tumour is when it spreads around the body.

Scientists, have designed nanoparticles that stay in the bloodstream and kill migrating cancer cells on contact.

They said the impact was “dramatic” but there was “a lot more work to be done”.

One of the biggest factors in life expectancy after being diagnosed with cancer is whether the tumour has spread to become a metastatic cancer.

“About 90% of cancer deaths are related to metastases,” said lead researcher

Prof Michael KingLead researcher said “The results are quite remarkable”

On the trail

The team at Cornell devised a new way of tackling the problem.

They attached a cancer-killing protein called Trail,  and other sticky proteins to tiny spheres or nanoparticles.

When these sticky spheres were injected into the blood, they latched on to white blood cells.

Tests showed that in the rough and tumble of the bloodstream, the white blood cells would bump into any tumour cells which had broken off the main tumour and were trying to spread.

Experiment showed the resulting contact with the Trail protein then triggered the death of the tumour cells.

Researchers Said The data shows a dramatic effect: it’s not a slight change in the number of cancer cells.

“The results are quite remarkable actually, in human blood and in mice. After two hours of blood flow, they [the tumour cells] have literally disintegrated.”

Adoption with Caution

He believes the nanoparticles could be used before surgery or radiotherapy, which can result in tumour cells being shed from the main tumour.

It could also be used in patients with very aggressive tumours to prevent them spreading.

However, much more safety testing in mice and larger animals will be needed before any attempt at a human trial is made.

So far the evidence suggests the system has no knock-on effect for the immune system and does not damage other blood cells or the lining of blood vessels.

But  cautioned: “There’s a lot of work to be done. Various breakthroughs are needed before this could be a benefit to patients.”

Pharmacological Chemotherapy Mnemonics

New Series of Mnemonics are no more than an Art piece.

Updated Content with Beautiful Design and Better Combination Scheme. Now its Pleasant to Watch and Read.

This is Our little Effort to Encourage Academic Activities among Students.

Knowledge is Power… Believe it & Share it

For Pharmacological CNS Mnemonics CLICK HERE

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Alzheimer’s Breakthrough as scientists manage to stop brain cells from dying

Alzheimer’s breakthrough hailed as ‘turning point’

The discovery of the first chemical to prevent the death of brain tissue in a neurodegenerative disease has been hailed as the “turning point” in the fight against Alzheimer’s disease.

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