1.TRUE CUT BIOPSY
1.TRUE CUT BIOPSY
The WordPress.com stats helper monkeys prepared a 2014 annual report for this blog.
The concert hall at the Sydney Opera House holds 2,700 people. This blog was viewed about 31,000 times in 2014. If it were a concert at Sydney Opera House, it would take about 11 sold-out performances for that many people to see it.
Ebola is a deadly disease caused by a virus. There are five strains, and four of them can make people sick. After entering the body, it kills cells, making some of them explode. It wrecks the immune system, causes heavy bleeding inside the body, and damages almost every organ.
The virus is scary, but it’s also rare. You can get it only from direct contact with an infected person’s body fluids.
You get Ebola from a person who has the virus, and only while he or she has symptoms. People pass it to others through their body fluids. Blood, stool, and vomit are the most infectious, but semen, urine, sweat, tears, and breast milk also carry it.
To get Ebola, you’d have to get these fluids in your mouth, nose, eyes, genitals, or a break in your skin. You could also pick it up from items that have fluids on them, like needles or sheets.
You can’t get Ebola from casual contact, like sitting next to an infected person. Air, food, and water don’t carry the virus. But kissing or sharing food or a drink with someone who has Ebola could be a risk, since you might get his saliva in your mouth.
It can take from 2 to 21 days, but usually 8 to 10 days, after infection for signs of Ebola to appear. Symptoms can seem like the flu at first — sudden fever, feeling tired, muscle pains, headache, and sore throat.
As the disease gets worse, it causes
There have been 33 Ebola outbreaks since 1976, but the 2014 outbreak in West Africa is by far the largest. The virus has infected thousands of people and killed more than half of them. It started in Guinea and spread to Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Nigeria. A man who had traveled to the U.S. from Africa died of Ebola in October.
World Health Organization raised the death toll attributed to the Ebola outbreak. The Geneva-based U.N. agency said that 4,033 confirmed, probable or suspected Ebola deaths have now been recorded.
There is no approved medicine or vaccine to treat or prevent Ebola. Scientists have tested some drugs on animals, which seemed to work. But they haven’t studied how the medications affect humans. Researchers are also studying two new vaccines that could prevent Ebola, but they still need to test them in more people to see if they’re safe and if they work.
Since there aren’t any drugs to fight the virus, health care teams treat the person’s symptoms and offer basic support care. They:
A person’s survival depends on how well his immune system works. The sooner he gets medical care, the better the chances he’ll recover.
The best way to avoid Ebola is to stay away from areas where the virus is common. If you are in an outbreak area:
Reference: Google Search
Laughing could dramatically improve your health – and be as good for you as a deep state of meditation, researchers have found.
Studying the effects of the stress hormone cortisol on the brain, the researchers, decided to investigate whether laughter could affect its destructive impact on the body.
They found that laughter reduces the negative effects of cortisol and could be used as a therapy, offering a pleasant solution to the patients with hypertension, diabetes or heart problems.
“Things are simple: the less stress one has, the better his memory is,” says Dr. Lee Berk, who took part in the study.“Humour reduces the destructive action of hormones associated with stress such as cortisol, which acts on hippocampal neurons responsible for memory function, and reduces the levels of blood pressure, thus improving our mood” explains the researcher.
“Laughter stimulates the release of endorphins and dopamine in the brain, giving us a sense of satisfaction and reward. These beneficial neurochemicals changes, in turn, make the immune system work better,” says Dr. Berk
As shown by the results of the study, laughter causes changes in the brain waves, specifically, gamma waves, which seems to boost memory retrieval processes.
“Laughter leads to the production of brain wave frequencies similar to those observed in people in a meditative state,” adds Dr. Berk.
As part of their study, the scientists showed funny videos lasting 20 minutes to a group of healthy elderly people and a group of elderly diabetic patients. Then they asked the volunteers to complete a questionnaire to assess their skills towards learning, memory retrieval and visual recognition. Finally, the results were compared to those of a control group who had the same age but did not watch the videos.
The researchers went on to measure the levels of cortisol both at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. As a result, they detected a significant reduction in levels of the stress hormone in both groups who had watched the videos and showed improvement in the ability to recall their memories compared to the control group.
Specifically, the largest decline in the levels of cortisol was detected in the case of the group of patients with diabetes, while the members of the group of healthy volunteers showed the highest score in the memory test.
Courtesy: Science Journal Paper
The team in China and the US used advanced microscopy to witness new connections between brain cells – synapses – forming during sleep.
Their study, showed even intense training could not make up for lost sleep.
Experts said it was an elegant and significant study, which uncovered the mechanisms of memory.
It is well-known that sleep plays an important role in memory and learning. But what actually happens inside the brain has been a source of considerable debate.
They then looked inside the living brain with a microscope to see what happened when the animals were either sleeping or sleep deprived.
Their study showed that sleeping mice formed significantly more new connections between neurons – they were learning more.
During this stage, the brain was “replaying” the activity from earlier in the day.
Prof Wen-Biao Said: “Finding out sleep promotes new connections between neurons is new, nobody knew this before.
A new reason for sleep was discovered last year when experiments showed the brain used sleep to wash away waste toxins built up during a hard day’s thinking.
However, there are concerns that people are not getting enough sleep.
Prof Russell Foster argued that society had become “supremely arrogant” in ignoring the importance of sleep, leading to “serious health problems”.
It predicts the number of cancer cases will reach 24 million a year by 2035, but half could be prevented.
The WHO said there was now a “real need” to focus on cancer prevention by tackling smoking, obesity and drinking.
The World Cancer Research Fund said there was an “alarming” level of naivety about diet’s role in cancer.
Fourteen million people a year are diagnosed with cancer, but that is predicted to increase to 19 million by 2025, 22 million by 2030 and 24 million by 2035.
The developing world will bear the brunt of the extra cases
The director of the WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer, “The global cancer burden is increasing and quite markedly, due predominately to the ageing of the populations and population growth.
These are major sources of preventable cancer included:
For most countries, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. However, cervical cancer dominates in large parts of Africa.
Prevention had a “crucial role in combating the tidal wave of cancer which we see coming across the world”.
In relation to alcohol, for example, we’re all aware of the acute effects, whether it’s car accidents or assaults, but there’s a burden of disease that’s not talked about because it’s simply not recognised, specifically involving cancer.
“The extent to which we modify the availability of alcohol, the labelling of alcohol, the promotion of alcohol and the price of alcohol – those things should be on the agenda.”
He said there was a similar argument to be had with sugar fuelling obesity, which in turn affected cancer risk.
Meanwhile, a survey of 2,046 people in the UK by the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) suggested 49% do not know that diet increases the risk of developing cancer.
Amanda McLean, general manager for the WCRF, said: “It’s very alarming to see that such a large number of people don’t know that there’s a lot they can do to significantly reduce their risk of getting cancer.
“These results show that many people still seem to mistakenly accept their chances of getting cancer as a throw of the dice, but by making lifestyle changes today, we can help prevent cancer tomorrow.”
It advises a diet packed with vegetables, fruit, and wholegrain; cutting down on alcohol and red meat; and junking processed meat completely.
“People can cut their risk of cancer by making healthy lifestyle choices, but it’s important to remember that the government and society are also responsible for creating an environment that supports healthy lifestyles.
In this research, the main instrument for collecting primary data is questionnaire, Questionnaire, which consists the following questions and objectives.
The data collected through questionnaire give a realistic view of both systems of examination.
Researchers have personally collected data by face to-face meeting with students as well contacted them telephonically. This data is free from any bias and misinterpretation.
Now we will see that how the students giving their responses to the effectiveness of both the systems. The data have collected through questionnaire from students of different institutions. The data show the following result regarding which system of examination provides good grading criteria. In compliance to this question, shows that 74% students out of 500 students have given preference to semester system and 20% students were in favour of annual system and remaining 6% students showed their tendency towards both systems. The questionnaire result can also be accessible with the help of diagram and pie chart as under.
but overall it shows that majority of students favor semester system than other system.
A questionnaire had distributed among 500 students of different colleges and institutions. In response, 420 students responded with semester system of examination and only 80 students showed their propensity towards annual systems, it means that 84% students out of 500 were favoured with semester system of examination. They consider that better marks can obtained through semester system of examination and only 16% were in favor of annual system. The data result is also presented with the help of figure as under.
The figure illustrates the higher tendency level of student’s responses with favor of semester system and low-level with annual system.
The data collected through this questionnaire exhibits 250 students satisfy with semester system. They said that under semester system students could get jobs comparatively easily because students are up to date and secured better marks as well. Other 130 responded with annual system and remaining 120 students responded with both systems, 50% students replied their views in favor of semester system of examination, 26% students showed their curiosity in annual system of examination and rest of 24% students have given their responses to both systems. We can also see the data presentation through diagrammatically as under.
The questionnaire result show that students penchant regarding job opportunities and better job chances comes through semester system of education than other system.
In compliance to this question, 350 students replied in favor of semester system out of 500, which shows that 70% students have given their assent for semester system, 16% , which were consisted 80 respondents, have given their consent for annual system. Other of 14%, which respondents have given their views for both system. The data have demonstrated with the help of the following diagram and chart.
Most of the students from different institutes have participated in this questionnaire, researchers asked about the concept understanding, majority of the respondents have shown their tendency towards semester system, and in this regard, the above pie chart is evidence.
It seems that the large number of students believe that concept develops with semester system compare to annual system.
In response, 45% students out of 500 responded that semester system is better than annual system because academic goals can easily achieved under semester system, 31% replied that annual system is better than semester system and remaining 24% replied both system are similar regarding focused academic goals. The collected data has postulated with the following diagram.
The diagram presents the overall picture regarding annual and semester system of the inquired question.
It means semester system better in academic goals than annual system, and some students expressed their consents both system are equal in this regard.
As compared to annual system, semester system has proved better. Most of the students who were participated and replied that semester system is better than annual system, 92% respondents out of 500 have shown their consent to semester system , they replied that student learns more in this system, only 8% of the population replied that annual system is better than semester. The data has presented in diagram is as under.
It has cleared from the above diagram that majority of the students shows the tendency towards semester system.
It is common practice that students who are studying under semester system are better in presentation and management skills than students of annual system are. Respondents have given their answer, when asked which system provides better presentation skills, the majority of student’s inclination towards semester system, which consist 500 students, all students have agreed that semester system provides better presentation skills than annual system. As we, can see responses with the help of following chart.
All Respondents have absolutely in favor of semester system of examination, which shows 100% tendency towards it.
Under annual system, examination held at the end of each session /year, therefore most of the students does overburden academically. In semester system, examination held at the end of each semester, as course outlines divided into semesters, therefore students performs comparatively better. In this regard, 56% students have given their negative views about annual system, 16% respondents against semester system and remaining 28% responded to both systems. The outcome of the questionnaire in this regard is as under:
The diagram shows that majority of students agree that we do have overburdened in annual system as compared to semester system of examination.
Semester system provides opportunity for students to polish their selves with great extent through presentations, mid-term examinations, group discussions and submission of assignments etc with regular intervals.
In compliance to this question, 84% students responded for semester system, 10% students showed their consent for annual system and 6% respondents showed their expression for both systems.
The above data from respondents shows that students can properly evaluate and appraise in semester system than annual system of examination.
As we know that annual system takes more time to close the session, therefore the propensity of the teachers in semester system is greater than of annual system to teach with proper road map, full consideration and attention. The data collected through this questionnaire shows that majority of groups, that is 90 % responded to semester system , 6% responded for annual.
The Blue Section shows the propensity of those students who showed their interest in semester system. Therefore, it is clear that targeted groups have given more time, consideration and concentration to semester system of examination.
In compliance to this question, 58 % students responded to semester system, they have agreed that semester system provides best learning opportunities. They consider that in semester system students’ goes through different techniques of learning, which are presentation skills, group discussions, assignment etc. On other hand 20% said that annual system of examination is best source of learning, and rest 22% replied that both systems of examination are better for learning perspective.
They also said that learning depend upon students, neither on examination system. We can also see the following diagram for further explanation.
We have taken Government College of commerce, University of Peshawar, Pakistan, as a sample. As we know that, University of Peshawar conducts examination of B.Com through Annual system through out Province whereas B.B.A examination conducts through semester system, but here readers will observe visible difference in results of same college of same university. The semester system of examination is better in respect of aggregate as well in individual results than annual system of examination as actual data/results of year 2010-2011 reveals itself :
In 2011, there were 265 students appeared for examination, in which 135 have passed and 130 students have failed whereas in same year 265 students have given the B.B.A examination in which 255 students have passed and 10 have failed.
The above data evident, that the Failure ratio was comparatively high in annual system of examination
Reference: International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences
September 2012, Vol. 2, No. 9
A magnet device can be used to treat some types of migraine, new Research advises.
The NICE says although there is limited evidence, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may help ease symptoms in some patients.
It says that the procedure is still relatively new and that more data is needed about its long-term safety and efficacy.
But it may be useful for patients for whom other treatments have failed.
“Huge numbers of sufferers find their lives blighted by migraine”
Migraine is common – it affects about one in four women and one in 12 men in the UK.
Although there is no cure for migraine, it is often possible to prevent or lessen the severity of attacks.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation(TMS), under the supervision of a specialist doctor – it would be a cost-effective therapy for Migraine
“TMS involves using a portable device that is placed on the scalp to deliver a brief magnetic pulse.”
Prof Peter Goadsby, said many migraine patients stood to benefit from trying TMS.
In a trial in 164 patients, TMS worked twice as compared to placebo therapy and about 40% were pain-free two hours after using the device.
Wendy Thomas, said: “Huge numbers of sufferers find their lives blighted by migraine. The TMS may help deliver brighter futures to many people for whom other treatments have not worked.“
Cancer-killing “sticky balls” can destroy tumour cells in the blood and may prevent cancers spreading, early research suggests.
The most dangerous and deadly stage of a tumour is when it spreads around the body.
Scientists, have designed nanoparticles that stay in the bloodstream and kill migrating cancer cells on contact.
They said the impact was “dramatic” but there was “a lot more work to be done”.
One of the biggest factors in life expectancy after being diagnosed with cancer is whether the tumour has spread to become a metastatic cancer.
“About 90% of cancer deaths are related to metastases,” said lead researcher
Prof Michael KingLead researcher said “The results are quite remarkable”
The team at Cornell devised a new way of tackling the problem.
They attached a cancer-killing protein called Trail, and other sticky proteins to tiny spheres or nanoparticles.
When these sticky spheres were injected into the blood, they latched on to white blood cells.
Tests showed that in the rough and tumble of the bloodstream, the white blood cells would bump into any tumour cells which had broken off the main tumour and were trying to spread.
Experiment showed the resulting contact with the Trail protein then triggered the death of the tumour cells.
Researchers Said The data shows a dramatic effect: it’s not a slight change in the number of cancer cells.
“The results are quite remarkable actually, in human blood and in mice. After two hours of blood flow, they [the tumour cells] have literally disintegrated.”
He believes the nanoparticles could be used before surgery or radiotherapy, which can result in tumour cells being shed from the main tumour.
It could also be used in patients with very aggressive tumours to prevent them spreading.
However, much more safety testing in mice and larger animals will be needed before any attempt at a human trial is made.
So far the evidence suggests the system has no knock-on effect for the immune system and does not damage other blood cells or the lining of blood vessels.
But cautioned: “There’s a lot of work to be done. Various breakthroughs are needed before this could be a benefit to patients.”