MEDICINE OSCE SLIDES

1.TRUE CUT BIOPSY

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  • LIVER BIOPSY
  • THYROID BIOPSY
  • RENAL BIOPSY

Contraindications:

  •  LOCAL INFECTION
  • COAGULOPATHY
  • ABSCESS FORMATION

2. X RAY CHEST PNEUMOTHORAX

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  • JET BLACK SHADOW ON LEFT LOWER ZONE
  • COLLAPSE LUNGS
  • TRACHEA SHIFT RIGHT SIDE

3. LIVEDO RETICULARIS.

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  • ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME
  • SLE

C. URINE EXMANIATION

COOMB TEST

4. KOILONYCHIA

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  • B. MCV
  • SERUM FERRITIN
  • TIBC
  • TRANSFERRIN SATURATION

C.IRON REPLACEMENT THERAPY

BLOOD TRANSFUSION

5. KOILONYCHIA

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B. IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA

C. IRON PROFILE

6. CHEST X RAY PLUERAL EFFUSION

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B. HOMOGENOUS OPAQUE SHADOW  ON LEFT SIDE WITH

LOSS OF CARDIO-PHRENIC AND COSTO-PHRENIC ANGLE

  • T.B
  • PNEUMONIA
  • SLE
  • CCF
  • RA

7. INSULIN SYRINGE

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  • D.M
  • HEPARIN
  • B-INTERFERON

8. RHEUMATOID ARTHIRITIS

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B.SWAN NECK DEFORMITY

C. ANTI CCP

9. CLUBBING OF FINGERS

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  • CIRRHOSIS
  • COPD
  • BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS

10. JAUNDICE

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  • HEPATITIS
  • HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA

C. LFT

SERUM BILIRUBIN LEVELS

11. MALAR RASH

IMG_2070B. ANA, Anti-dsDNA

C. Hydroxychloroquine

12. BELLS PALSY

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  • 2. Corticosteroids
  • Physiotherapy

13. SPINE X RAY ANKYLOSING SPONDILITIS

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B. BAMBOO SPINE

  • C. BRIDGING SYNDESMOPHYTES
  • FUSION OF VERTEBRAL JOINT

13. CUSHING SYNDROME

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  • THIN PAPRY SKIN (5)
  • BUFALLO HUMP (7)
  • SKIN STRIA (3)
  • CENTRAL OBESITY (2)
  • TRUNCAL OBESITY (4)
  • SKIN BRUISE (6)

14. ACHLASIA CARDIA

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  • B. CHAGAS DISEASE
  • AMYLOIDOSIS
  • SARCODOSIS

TREATMENT:

  1. PNEUMATIC DILATION
  2. ENDOSCPIC DILATION
  3. HELLERS MYOTOMY

15. LP NEEDLE

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  • B. CSF EXAMINATION
  • INTRATHECAL INJECTION
  • SPINAL ANEASTHESIA
  1. C. RAISED ICP
  2. INFECTION

16. PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW METER

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  • B. 450 – 600ml (MALE)
  • 350-550ml (FEMALE)

17. BRONCHIECTASIS.

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  • B. HELICAL CT SCAN
  • CHEST XRAY

Complications:

  1. COR POLMONALE
  2. RESPIRATORY FAILURE
  3. AMYLOIDOSIS

18. BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

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  • PFT
  • 20% DIURINAL VARIATION ON PEF DIARY
  • DECREASE IN FEV1 OF >15% AFTER 6 MIN EXCERSICE
  1. OXYGEN THERAPY
  2. INHALED BETA AGONIST
  3. INHALED CORTICOSTEROIDS

 

19. PLUERAL EFFUSION.

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B. AS SAME AS ABOVE

  • C. PA CHEST X RAY
  • ULTRASOUND
  • DIAGNOSTIC TAP

20. SLE WITH ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODY SYNDROME

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  • DOPPLER ULTRASOUND OF LOWER LIMB
  • APTT
  • Anti-dsDNA
  • URINE DR

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21. MENINGITIS

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  • B. LUMPER PUNCTURE – CSF EXAMINATION
  • BLOOD CULTURE
  1. CEFTRIAXONE 2g 12 HOURLY
  2. STEROID THERAPY

21. C.A PNEUMONIA

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  • CHEST X RAY
  • BLOOD CULTURE
  • SPUTUM CULTURE
  1. C. PENICILLIN G
  2. AMOXICILLIN

DR.QADRI

1.MITRAL STENOSIS WITH ATRIAL FIBRILLATION

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  • CHEST X-RAY
  • ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
  • ECG

2. HYPOTHYROIDISM

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  • THYROID ANTIBODIES
  • TFT
  • ECG
  1. C. IODINE SUPPLEMENTS
  2. LEVOTHYROXINE

3. 3rd CRANIAL NERVE EXAMINATION

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  • EYE MOVEMENT
  • PTOSIS

B. CAUSES

4. CHEST X RAY PLEURAL EFFUSION

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  • D/D HYDRO-PNEMOTHORAX
  • MASS LESION

5. ADDISON DISEASE

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  1. SHORT ACTH-STIMULATION TEST

GLUCOCORTICOID= HYDROCORTISONE

MINERALOCORTICOID= FLUDROCORTISONE

6. ACROMEGALY

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  • 2.TRANS-SPHENOID SURGERY
  • OCTREOTIDE
  • PEGVISOMANT
  • BROMOCRIPTINE
  1. ?

7. HYPERTHYROIDISM

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  1. GRAVES DISEASE
  2. TOXIC ADENOMA
  3. DE QUERVAIN THYOIDITIS

TREATMENT:

  • PROPYLTHIOURACIL
  • CARBAMIZIPINE
  • RADIOACTIVE IODINE
  • SUB-TOTAL THYROIDECTOMY

 

8. G.B SYNDROME

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  • CSF FINDINGS= ALBUMINOCYTOLOGIC DISSOCIATION
  • ELECTROMYOGRAPHY

9. DIABETIC KETOACEDOSIS

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  • URINE KETONES
  • ELECTROLYTES
  • ABG

TREATMENT:

  1. FLUID
  2. INSULIN
  3. ELECTROLYTE REPLACEMENT
  4. ANTIBIOTICS

10.HYPOGLYCEMIA

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B. BLOOD SUGAR

C. 25% DEXTROSE WATER SOLUTION

11. ECG

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RATE = 60

12. IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA

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  • MENSIS HISTORY
  • DIET INTAKE
  • WORM INFESTATION

13. WILSON DISEASE

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B. AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE

D. PENICILLAMINE

14. T.B

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15. CHEST XRAY – PLUERAL EFFUSION

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A. LEFT SIDE= HOMOGENEOUS OPACITY WITH BLUNT CARDIOPHRENIC AND COSTO PHRENIC ANGLE

RIGHT SIDE= JET BLACK SHADOW

  • B. DIAGNOSTIC TAP
  • GRAM STAIN
  • CULTURE
  • ULTRA SOUND

16. CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKAEMIA

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  • B. RNA ANALYSIS= BCR/APL GENE PRODUCT
  • CHROMOSOME ANALYSIS = PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME
  1. C. IMITINIB/DUSATINIB
  2. BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION

17. UMN LESION

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2. CT SCAN

18. DENGUE

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19. 5th CRANIAL NERVE EXAMINATION

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B. CAUSE=

20. LYMPHOMA

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21. TYPHOID FEVER

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22. PRIMARY BILLIARY CIRRHOSIS

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23. DISSEMINATED T.B

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24. SPONTANEOUS BACTERIAL PERITONITIS

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25. CEREBRAL MALARIA

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26. D.M

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A. EXERCISE, DIET CONTROL

B. METFORMIN

27. STROKE

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28. PNEUMONIA

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29. HYPERTHYROIDISM

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30 MEGALOBLASTIC ANEMIA

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Microsoft Hololens Could be Future of Medical Learning.

Microsoft (Company Behind Windows ) have recently showcased a Headset device called HOLOLENS, a smart glass which can present 3D Presentation in Real World.

In the video, the Microsoft talks about how through its partnership is transforming the way human anatomy is taught to prospective doctors.

On the video, medicine students can create holographic projection of the human body. This way students can see how bones, muscles Arteries as well as other organs of the human body work without the need to dissect a cadaver.

Student using Hololens said “I had a moment where I found the aortic valve and it was actually the first time i’d seen the valve in relation to all the other anatomical structures. It was a way of seeing it that you couldn’t do with an actual heart, he added.”

Through the use of HoloLens’ augmented reality environment, students and teachers can create simulations of several medical situation without the need of a live human patient which in turn creates a low-stress environment for future medical practitioners.

ENT OSPE SLIDES CMC Batch #39

 Slide 01: Tonsillectomy Instrument.

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Slide 02: Acute Tonsillitis.DSC05783

Slide 03: Acute Tonsillitis.

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Slide 04: QUINSY.

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Slide 05: Proof Washout / Antrum Washout.

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Slide 06: Direct Laryngoscopy.

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  • DSC05788

Slide 07: Indirect Laryngoscopy.

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  • DSC05790

Slide 08: Auricle Hematoma.

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Slide 09: Tracheostomy.

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  • DSC05793

Slide  10: Hearing & Deafness.

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Slide 11: Ossicles.

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Slide 12: Anterior Nasal Packing,

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Slide 13: Deviated Nasal Septum.

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  • DSC05798

Slide 14: Tympanic Membrane. LABEL IT

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Slide 15: Rinnes Test.

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Slide 16: CSOM

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Slide 17: Otosclerosis. (Types)


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Slide 18: Ethmoidal Polyp.

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Slide 19: Antrachoanal Polyp.

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Slide 20: Plain X-ray View Head.

  1. Frontal Sinus
  2. Orbital Shadow
  3. Maxillary Sinus
  4. Nasal Septum
  5. Nasal Cavity
  6. Inferior Turbinates

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Slide 21: DNS (Types)

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Slide 22: CSOM (tubo-tympanic type)

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Slide 23: Adenoid Curate.

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Slide 24: Nasal Packing.

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Slide 25: Saddle Nose Deformity.

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Slide 26: Weber Test.

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Slide 27: Tonsillectomy – Dissection Method.

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Slide 28: Tonsiller Piller Retractor.

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Slide 29: Boyles Davis Mouth Gag.

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Slide 30: Tuning Fork.

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Slide 31: Chronic Rhino-sinusitis.

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Slide 32: Nasal Speculum.

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Slide 33: Tonsillectomy – Rose Position.

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Slide 34:  Endaural Incision.

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ENT OSPE Slides LUMHS batch 2010

Slide: Laryngoscope

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Slide: Air way 1506679_675733242462089_76087616894349124_n

Slide: anterior rhinoscopy 1513847_675733319128748_7811944035598282094_n

Slide: acute follicular tonsillitis 1544496_675733635795383_6893207929256482026_n

Slide: Endotracheal tube 1604708_675733219128758_5782584191324388784_n

Slide: mass at glottis 1798518_675733039128776_1623035155696037669_n

Slide: growth in mouth 1922018_675733515795395_3095417811912644976_n

Slide: TM 1925327_675732662462147_3958363978219072435_n

Slide: tracheostomy tube .. metallic 1959301_675733085795438_1016064981331320966_n

Slide: examination of ear 1959385_675732625795484_309065994661697547_n

Slide: Hemmatoma of the pinna
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Slide: IDL10151846_675732975795449_301007566450245385_n

 

Slide: CSOM wid complication (post aural sinus)

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Slide: For labelling From Above:

  1. median raphe
  2. palate
  3. uvula
  4. tonsil
  5. base of tongue

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Slide: mastoiditis 10155531_675732842462129_2277937750380528349_n

Slide: posterior rhinoscopy 10155734_675733342462079_8222562441931026407_n

Slide: posterior rhinoscopy Nasal polyp

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Slide: external nasal deformity 10169376_675733399128740_1475793785330289357_n

Slide: Xray neck and chest PA view .. Showing foreign body 10171281_675733252462088_2615269213144715732_n

Slide: perforation wid cholesteotoma 10172596_675732772462136_447359181690758121_n

Slide: Septal Perforation
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Slide: tonsillar snare 10174992_675733539128726_2255511666767825982_n

Slide: portex tracheostomy tube

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Slide: aural hematoma .. generalized 10178043_675732829128797_7224281571694756301_n

Slide: Anterior Septal Dislocation 10247354_675733412462072_536489717732278924_n

Slide: bronchoscope 10253862_675733175795429_146095633075788404_n

Slide: TM wid Grommet 10253900_675732892462124_356670526975412769_n

Slide: septal hematoma 10253900_675733619128718_252779873392788359_n

Slide: oropharynx 10253915_675733469128733_6664718219094174271_n

Slide: Boil10256892_675733569128723_1770384483982559763_n

Slide: quinsy 10259808_675733595795387_4942064378639012329_n

Slide: TM
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Slide: central TM perforation 10271504_675732749128805_4834629967590744492_n
Slide: Perforations

  • Central Type ( Above Pic)
  • Attic on the left and marginal on Right

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Slide: perichondritis 10271568_675732802462133_5133855769329193728_n

Slide: facial palsy (of right side) 10271606_675732925795454_4039335568329239682_n

Slide: Xray contrast lateral view ov neck and chest .. Barium swallow 10277825_675733269128753_6542359356516900442_n

Slide: vocal nodules 10290704_675733025795444_5424066869374535467_n

Slide: trocar and canula 10295775_675733442462069_2137119918752998861_n

Slide: indirect laryngoscopy 10295786_675732945795452_1036709634137733499_n

Slide: tunning fork and its tests 10297662_675732635795483_1308058474842796047_n

Slide: Vocal Cord10299974_675733009128779_2023458099860839169_n

Slide: Central Perfration (CSOM)10308156_675732719128808_5626805756630800747_n

Slide: person having tracheostomy tube with post operative tracheostomy care.

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Slide: esophagioscope 10309039_675733189128761_1789698408060501818_n

All you need to know: EBOLA & its OUTBREAK !

What is Ebola?

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Ebola is a deadly disease caused by a virus. There are five strains, and four of them can make people sick. After entering the body, it kills cells, making some of them explode. It wrecks the immune system, causes heavy bleeding inside the body, and damages almost every organ.

The virus is scary, but it’s also rare. You can get it only from direct contact with an infected person’s body fluids.

How do you get it?

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You get Ebola from a person who has the virus, and only while he or she has symptoms. People pass it to others through their body fluids. Blood, stool, and vomit are the most infectious, but semen, urine, sweat, tears, and breast milk also carry it.

To get Ebola, you’d have to get these fluids in your mouth, nose, eyes, genitals, or a break in your skin. You could also pick it up from items that have fluids on them, like needles or sheets.

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How You Won’t Get Ebola

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You can’t get Ebola from casual contact, like sitting next to an infected person. Air, food, and water don’t carry the virus. But kissing or sharing food or a drink with someone who has Ebola could be a risk, since you might get his saliva in your mouth.

What are the symptoms?

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It can take from 2 to 21 days, but usually 8 to 10 days, after infection for signs of Ebola to appear. Symptoms can seem like the flu at first — sudden fever, feeling tired, muscle pains, headache, and sore throat.

As the disease gets worse, it causes

  • Vomiting, Diarrhea
  • Rash
  • Bruising 
  • Bleeding without an injury, like from the eyes or gums.

Where is Ebola?

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There have been 33 Ebola outbreaks since 1976, but the 2014 outbreak in West Africa is by far the largest. The virus has infected thousands of people and killed more than half of them. It started in Guinea and spread to Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Nigeria. A man who had traveled to the U.S. from Africa died of Ebola in October.

World Health Organization  raised the death toll attributed to the Ebola outbreak. The Geneva-based U.N. agency said that 4,033 confirmed, probable or suspected Ebola deaths have now been recorded.

Is There a Vaccine for Ebola?

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There is no approved medicine or vaccine to treat or prevent Ebola. Scientists have tested some drugs on animals, which seemed to work. But they haven’t studied how the medications affect humans. Researchers are also studying two new vaccines that could prevent Ebola, but they still need to test them in more people to see if they’re safe and if they work.

Treatment

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Since there aren’t any drugs to fight the virus, health care teams treat the person’s symptoms and offer basic support care. They:

  • Keep the person hydrated with fluids through an IV.
  • Give oxygen.
  • Maintain their blood pressure.
  • Treat any other infections they have.
  • ZMapp, the experimental treatment rushed to two Americans infected with Ebola in Africa, is grown in specially modified leaves of tobacco — a plant better known for harming health than healing is proven to be effective in saving lives of people infected with Ebola

A person’s survival depends on how well his immune system works. The sooner he gets medical care, the better the chances he’ll recover.

How Can I Prevent It?

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The best way to avoid Ebola is to stay away from areas where the virus is common. If you are in an outbreak area:

  • Avoid infected people, their body fluids, and the bodies of anyone who has died from the disease.
  • Avoid contact with wild animals, like bats and monkeys, and their meat.
  • Wash your hands often.

Reference: Google Search

The 5 Greatest Medical Inventions of Last “50” years

1st

In today’s world, technology is king. This is especially true in the healthcare industry where innovation and technology are giving doctors and care givers the ability to better predict diseases, more accurately diagnose illnesses, perform complex surgeries with ease, and improve the lives of people all around the world.

Continue reading

The Top 5 Major Milestones of Pakistan since independence.

A NUCLEAR STATE

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After uneasy relationships with India, Afghanistan, the former Soviet Union, and the energy shortage, explains its motivation to become a nuclear power as part of its defence and energy strategies

India as a rogue state threatening the sovereignty of Pakistan and the very existence substantially increased when Pakistan  became aware of advancing Indian nuclear program towards making the bombs.

For Pakistan it meant “a (nuclear) India would further undermine and threaten Pakistan’s security, and for her survival,

Therefore Pakistan needed a nuclear deterrent to counter and neutralize the balance of power in South Asia which India Shifted toward itself by declaring himself a nuclear state

In January 1972 under the leadership of Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, who delegated the program to, Abdul Qadeer Khan as the founder of Pakistan’s integrated atomic bomb project.

Soon Pakistan became the seventh country in the world to successfully develop and test nuclear weapons.

TARBELA DAM

Tarbela_Dam,_KPK,_Pakistan
Tarbela Dam

A Reservoir of water was consciously needed for irrigation purpose, the country survives through. Rivers which flow through country should necessary be channelled properly to cultivate crops to feed the poorly bitten country. Fortunately as Consequent to the Indus Basin Water Treaty, concluded between India and Pakistan, major water reservoirs were planned to be constructed in Pakistan to store water mainly for irrigation . One was on the river Jhelm at Mangla and the other on River Indus near the small town of Tarbela.

The Terbla Dam  on the Indus River in Pakistan is the largest earth filled dam in the world and second largest by structural volume.

It is located in Haripur District, Hazara Division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, about 50 kilometres  of Islamabad.The construction of dam was completed in 1974 and a major limestone was laid down in the history of Pakistan and was designed to store water from the Indus River for irrigation, flood control,

In addition to fulfilling primary purpose of the Dam i.e. supplying water for Irrigation, Tarbela Power Station has generated 341.139 Billion kWh of cheap hydro-electric energy since commissioning. The Dam is Providing cheap sustaining energy to the people of Pakistan where load shedding of electricity a daily dilemma  Lighting the Homes ever since.

MOTORWAYSPakistan_Nationalhighways

Motorways of Pakistan, an Ambition project in the history of Pakistan which will revolutionized the way people transport between cities. its like a dream for a common man to travel for their destination hassle free,as comfortable as possible

The aims to link Pakistan’s three Arabian Sea ports (Karachi Port, Port Bin Qasim and Gwadar Port) to the rest of the country and further north with Afghanistan, Central Asia and China.

Motorways are a network of multiple-lane, high-speed, limited-access or controlled-access highways in Pakistan, which are owned, maintained and operated federally by Pakistan’s National Highway Authority.

Most of the area of Punjab are covered through M-1 M-2 M-3 & M-4 Motorways while construction were made delays in Sindh due to political mischiefs. !

World Cup 1992

1992_Cricket_World_Cup
Kaptan Imran Khan Lifting World Cup Trophy

Ask any Pakistani what the happiest moment of his life has been and, excluding “the birth of my child”, you’re likely to receive a personal re-enactment of the day Imran Khan and company conquered by beating England in the final to become the World Cup champions for the first time in Melbourne  March 25, 1992.

Large Non Profit Public Health SectorsPCP-Logo

In comparison to other countries, Pakistan performs remarkable in charitable involvement and sprite of volunteerism. Following are three major charitable organisation which are flourished by generous people of Pakistan

  • Edhi FoundationEdhifoundation

Edhi Foundation is Largest Voluntary Ambulance Organization of the World and operates free nursing homes, orphanages, clinics, women’s shelters, and rehab centers for drug addicts and mentally ill individuals.

  • Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantationsiut

SIUT is a dialysis & kidney transplant centre. It’s Pakistan largest kidney disease centre as well as Public health sector. 10-12 Kidney transplants weekly and in 2003 doctors performed Pakistan’s first liver transplant, are provided free of cost.

It was founded by Dr. Adibul Hasan Rizvi

  • Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital & Research CentreSKMCH2012Aug07023455

It’s a state-of-the-art non-profit cancer research centre and hospital in Lahore, the first and only cancer hospital of international standards in Pakistan

Dedicated to providing first-class treatment of cancer to all its patients, irrespective of their ability to pay. The institution is invention infamous Pakistani cricket superstar Imran Khan.

 


 Hope you liked my Article and be grateful if you leave comments below. Thanks 🙂

LAUGHING PUTS THE BRAIN IN A MEDITATIVE STATE

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Laughing Buddha

Laughing could dramatically improve your health – and be as good for you as a deep state of meditation, researchers have found.

Studying the effects of the stress hormone cortisol on the brain, the researchers, decided to investigate whether laughter could affect its destructive impact on the body.

They found that laughter reduces the negative effects of cortisol and could be used as a therapy, offering a pleasant solution to the patients with hypertension, diabetes or heart problems.

“Things are simple: the less stress one has, the better his memory is,” says Dr. Lee Berk, who took part in the study.“Humour reduces the destructive action of hormones associated with stress such as cortisol, which acts on hippocampal neurons responsible for memory function, and reduces the levels of blood pressure, thus improving our mood” explains the researcher.

“Laughter stimulates the release of endorphins and dopamine in the brain, giving us a sense of satisfaction and reward. These beneficial neurochemicals changes, in turn, make the immune system work better,” says Dr. Berk

As shown by the results of the study, laughter causes changes in the brain waves, specifically, gamma waves, which seems to boost memory retrieval processes.

“Laughter leads to the production of brain wave frequencies similar to those observed in people in a meditative state,” adds Dr. Berk.


Research Study

As part of their study, the scientists showed funny videos lasting 20 minutes to a group of healthy elderly people and a group of elderly diabetic patients. Then they asked the volunteers to complete a questionnaire to assess their skills towards learning, memory retrieval and visual recognition. Finally, the results were compared to those of a control group who had the same age but did not watch the videos.

The researchers went on to measure the levels of cortisol both at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. As a result, they detected a significant reduction in levels of the stress hormone in both groups who had watched the videos and showed improvement in the ability to recall their memories compared to the control group.

Specifically, the largest decline in the levels of cortisol was detected in the case of the group of patients with diabetes, while the members of the group of healthy volunteers showed the highest score in the memory test.

“The findings of our study provide potential clinical benefits that could find application in particular in the case of older people,” says study author Dr. Gurinder.

Courtesy: Science Journal Paper