MEDICINE OSCE SLIDES

1.TRUE CUT BIOPSY

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Microsoft Hololens Could be Future of Medical Learning.

Microsoft (Company Behind Windows ) have recently showcased a Headset device called HOLOLENS, a smart glass which can present 3D Presentation in Real World.

In the video, the Microsoft talks about how through its partnership is transforming the way human anatomy is taught to prospective doctors.

On the video, medicine students can create holographic projection of the human body. This way students can see how bones, muscles Arteries as well as other organs of the human body work without the need to dissect a cadaver.

Student using Hololens said “I had a moment where I found the aortic valve and it was actually the first time i’d seen the valve in relation to all the other anatomical structures. It was a way of seeing it that you couldn’t do with an actual heart, he added.”

Through the use of HoloLens’ augmented reality environment, students and teachers can create simulations of several medical situation without the need of a live human patient which in turn creates a low-stress environment for future medical practitioners.

All you need to know: EBOLA & its OUTBREAK !

What is Ebola?

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Ebola is a deadly disease caused by a virus. There are five strains, and four of them can make people sick. After entering the body, it kills cells, making some of them explode. It wrecks the immune system, causes heavy bleeding inside the body, and damages almost every organ.

The virus is scary, but it’s also rare. You can get it only from direct contact with an infected person’s body fluids.

How do you get it?

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You get Ebola from a person who has the virus, and only while he or she has symptoms. People pass it to others through their body fluids. Blood, stool, and vomit are the most infectious, but semen, urine, sweat, tears, and breast milk also carry it.

To get Ebola, you’d have to get these fluids in your mouth, nose, eyes, genitals, or a break in your skin. You could also pick it up from items that have fluids on them, like needles or sheets.

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How You Won’t Get Ebola

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You can’t get Ebola from casual contact, like sitting next to an infected person. Air, food, and water don’t carry the virus. But kissing or sharing food or a drink with someone who has Ebola could be a risk, since you might get his saliva in your mouth.

What are the symptoms?

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It can take from 2 to 21 days, but usually 8 to 10 days, after infection for signs of Ebola to appear. Symptoms can seem like the flu at first — sudden fever, feeling tired, muscle pains, headache, and sore throat.

As the disease gets worse, it causes

  • Vomiting, Diarrhea
  • Rash
  • Bruising 
  • Bleeding without an injury, like from the eyes or gums.

Where is Ebola?

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There have been 33 Ebola outbreaks since 1976, but the 2014 outbreak in West Africa is by far the largest. The virus has infected thousands of people and killed more than half of them. It started in Guinea and spread to Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Nigeria. A man who had traveled to the U.S. from Africa died of Ebola in October.

World Health Organization  raised the death toll attributed to the Ebola outbreak. The Geneva-based U.N. agency said that 4,033 confirmed, probable or suspected Ebola deaths have now been recorded.

Is There a Vaccine for Ebola?

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There is no approved medicine or vaccine to treat or prevent Ebola. Scientists have tested some drugs on animals, which seemed to work. But they haven’t studied how the medications affect humans. Researchers are also studying two new vaccines that could prevent Ebola, but they still need to test them in more people to see if they’re safe and if they work.

Treatment

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Since there aren’t any drugs to fight the virus, health care teams treat the person’s symptoms and offer basic support care. They:

  • Keep the person hydrated with fluids through an IV.
  • Give oxygen.
  • Maintain their blood pressure.
  • Treat any other infections they have.
  • ZMapp, the experimental treatment rushed to two Americans infected with Ebola in Africa, is grown in specially modified leaves of tobacco — a plant better known for harming health than healing is proven to be effective in saving lives of people infected with Ebola

A person’s survival depends on how well his immune system works. The sooner he gets medical care, the better the chances he’ll recover.

How Can I Prevent It?

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The best way to avoid Ebola is to stay away from areas where the virus is common. If you are in an outbreak area:

  • Avoid infected people, their body fluids, and the bodies of anyone who has died from the disease.
  • Avoid contact with wild animals, like bats and monkeys, and their meat.
  • Wash your hands often.

Reference: Google Search

 

The 5 Greatest Medical Inventions of Last “50” years

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In today’s world, technology is king. This is especially true in the healthcare industry where innovation and technology are giving doctors and care givers the ability to better predict diseases, more accurately diagnose illnesses, perform complex surgeries with ease, and improve the lives of people all around the world.

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The Top 5 Major Milestones of Pakistan since independence.

A NUCLEAR STATE

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After uneasy relationships with India, Afghanistan, the former Soviet Union, and the energy shortage, explains its motivation to become a nuclear power as part of its defence and energy strategies

India as a rogue state threatening the sovereignty of Pakistan and the very existence substantially increased when Pakistan  became aware of advancing Indian nuclear program towards making the bombs.

For Pakistan it meant “a (nuclear) India would further undermine and threaten Pakistan’s security, and for her survival,

Therefore Pakistan needed a nuclear deterrent to counter and neutralize the balance of power in South Asia which India Shifted toward itself by declaring himself a nuclear state

In January 1972 under the leadership of Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, who delegated the program to, Abdul Qadeer Khan as the founder of Pakistan’s integrated atomic bomb project.

Soon Pakistan became the seventh country in the world to successfully develop and test nuclear weapons.

TARBELA DAM

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Tarbela Dam

A Reservoir of water was consciously needed for irrigation purpose, the country survives through. Rivers which flow through country should necessary be channelled properly to cultivate crops to feed the poorly bitten country. Fortunately as Consequent to the Indus Basin Water Treaty, concluded between India and Pakistan, major water reservoirs were planned to be constructed in Pakistan to store water mainly for irrigation . One was on the river Jhelm at Mangla and the other on River Indus near the small town of Tarbela.

The Terbla Dam  on the Indus River in Pakistan is the largest earth filled dam in the world and second largest by structural volume.

It is located in Haripur District, Hazara Division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, about 50 kilometres  of Islamabad.The construction of dam was completed in 1974 and a major limestone was laid down in the history of Pakistan and was designed to store water from the Indus River for irrigation, flood control,

In addition to fulfilling primary purpose of the Dam i.e. supplying water for Irrigation, Tarbela Power Station has generated 341.139 Billion kWh of cheap hydro-electric energy since commissioning. The Dam is Providing cheap sustaining energy to the people of Pakistan where load shedding of electricity a daily dilemma  Lighting the Homes ever since.

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Motorways of Pakistan, an Ambition project in the history of Pakistan which will revolutionized the way people transport between cities. its like a dream for a common man to travel for their destination hassle free,as comfortable as possible

The aims to link Pakistan’s three Arabian Sea ports (Karachi Port, Port Bin Qasim and Gwadar Port) to the rest of the country and further north with Afghanistan, Central Asia and China.

Motorways are a network of multiple-lane, high-speed, limited-access or controlled-access highways in Pakistan, which are owned, maintained and operated federally by Pakistan’s National Highway Authority.

Most of the area of Punjab are covered through M-1 M-2 M-3 & M-4 Motorways while construction were made delays in Sindh due to political mischiefs. !

World Cup 1992

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Kaptan Imran Khan Lifting World Cup Trophy

Ask any Pakistani what the happiest moment of his life has been and, excluding “the birth of my child”, you’re likely to receive a personal re-enactment of the day Imran Khan and company conquered by beating England in the final to become the World Cup champions for the first time in Melbourne  March 25, 1992.

Large Non Profit Public Health SectorsPCP-Logo

In comparison to other countries, Pakistan performs remarkable in charitable involvement and sprite of volunteerism. Following are three major charitable organisation which are flourished by generous people of Pakistan

  • Edhi FoundationEdhifoundation

Edhi Foundation is Largest Voluntary Ambulance Organization of the World and operates free nursing homes, orphanages, clinics, women’s shelters, and rehab centers for drug addicts and mentally ill individuals.

  • Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantationsiut

SIUT is a dialysis & kidney transplant centre. It’s Pakistan largest kidney disease centre as well as Public health sector. 10-12 Kidney transplants weekly and in 2003 doctors performed Pakistan’s first liver transplant, are provided free of cost.

It was founded by Dr. Adibul Hasan Rizvi

  • Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital & Research CentreSKMCH2012Aug07023455

It’s a state-of-the-art non-profit cancer research centre and hospital in Lahore, the first and only cancer hospital of international standards in Pakistan

Dedicated to providing first-class treatment of cancer to all its patients, irrespective of their ability to pay. The institution is invention infamous Pakistani cricket superstar Imran Khan.

 


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LAUGHING PUTS THE BRAIN IN A MEDITATIVE STATE

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Laughing Buddha

Laughing could dramatically improve your health – and be as good for you as a deep state of meditation, researchers have found.

Studying the effects of the stress hormone cortisol on the brain, the researchers, decided to investigate whether laughter could affect its destructive impact on the body.

They found that laughter reduces the negative effects of cortisol and could be used as a therapy, offering a pleasant solution to the patients with hypertension, diabetes or heart problems.

“Things are simple: the less stress one has, the better his memory is,” says Dr. Lee Berk, who took part in the study.“Humour reduces the destructive action of hormones associated with stress such as cortisol, which acts on hippocampal neurons responsible for memory function, and reduces the levels of blood pressure, thus improving our mood” explains the researcher.

“Laughter stimulates the release of endorphins and dopamine in the brain, giving us a sense of satisfaction and reward. These beneficial neurochemicals changes, in turn, make the immune system work better,” says Dr. Berk

As shown by the results of the study, laughter causes changes in the brain waves, specifically, gamma waves, which seems to boost memory retrieval processes.

“Laughter leads to the production of brain wave frequencies similar to those observed in people in a meditative state,” adds Dr. Berk.


Research Study

As part of their study, the scientists showed funny videos lasting 20 minutes to a group of healthy elderly people and a group of elderly diabetic patients. Then they asked the volunteers to complete a questionnaire to assess their skills towards learning, memory retrieval and visual recognition. Finally, the results were compared to those of a control group who had the same age but did not watch the videos.

The researchers went on to measure the levels of cortisol both at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. As a result, they detected a significant reduction in levels of the stress hormone in both groups who had watched the videos and showed improvement in the ability to recall their memories compared to the control group.

Specifically, the largest decline in the levels of cortisol was detected in the case of the group of patients with diabetes, while the members of the group of healthy volunteers showed the highest score in the memory test.

“The findings of our study provide potential clinical benefits that could find application in particular in the case of older people,” says study author Dr. Gurinder.

Courtesy: Science Journal Paper