In this research, the main instrument for collecting primary data is questionnaire, Questionnaire, which consists the following questions and objectives.
- Which system of examination Provides good grading criteria?
- In which system of examination, students can obtain better marks.
- In which system of examination Students can get better job opportunities
- Which system Provides thorough understanding of concepts?
- Under which system academic goals are focused?
- In which system students does found busier in academic activities?
- In which system Students does tested through different techniques?
- Which system show better presentation skills?
- In which system Students are academically over burden.
- In which system, students are continuously Evaluated ?
- To which system, teachers give consideration and concentration?
- Which system is better for learning?
And Lastly Comparative study between Annual and Semester System of B Com and BBA students.
Strength Of Research
The data collected through questionnaire give a realistic view of both systems of examination.
Researchers have personally collected data by face to-face meeting with students as well contacted them telephonically. This data is free from any bias and misinterpretation.
1: Which system of examination Provides good grading criteria?
Now we will see that how the students giving their responses to the effectiveness of both the systems. The data have collected through questionnaire from students of different institutions. The data show the following result regarding which system of examination provides good grading criteria. In compliance to this question, shows that 74% students out of 500 students have given preference to semester system and 20% students were in favour of annual system and remaining 6% students showed their tendency towards both systems. The questionnaire result can also be accessible with the help of diagram and pie chart as under.
but overall it shows that majority of students favor semester system than other system.
2: In which system of examination, students can obtain better marks?
A questionnaire had distributed among 500 students of different colleges and institutions. In response, 420 students responded with semester system of examination and only 80 students showed their propensity towards annual systems, it means that 84% students out of 500 were favoured with semester system of examination. They consider that better marks can obtained through semester system of examination and only 16% were in favor of annual system. The data result is also presented with the help of figure as under.
The figure illustrates the higher tendency level of student’s responses with favor of semester system and low-level with annual system.
3: In which system of examination Students can get better job opportunities?
The data collected through this questionnaire exhibits 250 students satisfy with semester system. They said that under semester system students could get jobs comparatively easily because students are up to date and secured better marks as well. Other 130 responded with annual system and remaining 120 students responded with both systems, 50% students replied their views in favor of semester system of examination, 26% students showed their curiosity in annual system of examination and rest of 24% students have given their responses to both systems. We can also see the data presentation through diagrammatically as under.
The questionnaire result show that students penchant regarding job opportunities and better job chances comes through semester system of education than other system.
4: Which system provides a thorough understanding of concept?
In compliance to this question, 350 students replied in favor of semester system out of 500, which shows that 70% students have given their assent for semester system, 16% , which were consisted 80 respondents, have given their consent for annual system. Other of 14%, which respondents have given their views for both system. The data have demonstrated with the help of the following diagram and chart.
Most of the students from different institutes have participated in this questionnaire, researchers asked about the concept understanding, majority of the respondents have shown their tendency towards semester system, and in this regard, the above pie chart is evidence.
It seems that the large number of students believe that concept develops with semester system compare to annual system.
5: Under which system academic goals are focused?
In response, 45% students out of 500 responded that semester system is better than annual system because academic goals can easily achieved under semester system, 31% replied that annual system is better than semester system and remaining 24% replied both system are similar regarding focused academic goals. The collected data has postulated with the following diagram.
The diagram presents the overall picture regarding annual and semester system of the inquired question.
It means semester system better in academic goals than annual system, and some students expressed their consents both system are equal in this regard.
6: In which system Students does tested through different techniques?
As compared to annual system, semester system has proved better. Most of the students who were participated and replied that semester system is better than annual system, 92% respondents out of 500 have shown their consent to semester system , they replied that student learns more in this system, only 8% of the population replied that annual system is better than semester. The data has presented in diagram is as under.
It has cleared from the above diagram that majority of the students shows the tendency towards semester system.
7: Which system show better presentation skills?
It is common practice that students who are studying under semester system are better in presentation and management skills than students of annual system are. Respondents have given their answer, when asked which system provides better presentation skills, the majority of student’s inclination towards semester system, which consist 500 students, all students have agreed that semester system provides better presentation skills than annual system. As we, can see responses with the help of following chart.
All Respondents have absolutely in favor of semester system of examination, which shows 100% tendency towards it.
8: In which system students are academically overburden?
Under annual system, examination held at the end of each session /year, therefore most of the students does overburden academically. In semester system, examination held at the end of each semester, as course outlines divided into semesters, therefore students performs comparatively better. In this regard, 56% students have given their negative views about annual system, 16% respondents against semester system and remaining 28% responded to both systems. The outcome of the questionnaire in this regard is as under:
The diagram shows that majority of students agree that we do have overburdened in annual system as compared to semester system of examination.
9: In which system students are continuously, Evaluated ?
Semester system provides opportunity for students to polish their selves with great extent through presentations, mid-term examinations, group discussions and submission of assignments etc with regular intervals.
In compliance to this question, 84% students responded for semester system, 10% students showed their consent for annual system and 6% respondents showed their expression for both systems.
The above data from respondents shows that students can properly evaluate and appraise in semester system than annual system of examination.
10: To which system, teachers give consideration and concentration?
As we know that annual system takes more time to close the session, therefore the propensity of the teachers in semester system is greater than of annual system to teach with proper road map, full consideration and attention. The data collected through this questionnaire shows that majority of groups, that is 90 % responded to semester system , 6% responded for annual.
The Blue Section shows the propensity of those students who showed their interest in semester system. Therefore, it is clear that targeted groups have given more time, consideration and concentration to semester system of examination.
11: Which system is better for learning?
In compliance to this question, 58 % students responded to semester system, they have agreed that semester system provides best learning opportunities. They consider that in semester system students’ goes through different techniques of learning, which are presentation skills, group discussions, assignment etc. On other hand 20% said that annual system of examination is best source of learning, and rest 22% replied that both systems of examination are better for learning perspective.
They also said that learning depend upon students, neither on examination system. We can also see the following diagram for further explanation.
Comparative results of B.Com / B.B.A of two years of Government College of Management Sciences, Peshawar city, Pakistan
We have taken Government College of commerce, University of Peshawar, Pakistan, as a sample. As we know that, University of Peshawar conducts examination of B.Com through Annual system through out Province whereas B.B.A examination conducts through semester system, but here readers will observe visible difference in results of same college of same university. The semester system of examination is better in respect of aggregate as well in individual results than annual system of examination as actual data/results of year 2010-2011 reveals itself :
In 2011, there were 265 students appeared for examination, in which 135 have passed and 130 students have failed whereas in same year 265 students have given the B.B.A examination in which 255 students have passed and 10 have failed.
The above data evident, that the Failure ratio was comparatively high in annual system of examination
Reference: International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences
September 2012, Vol. 2, No. 9
A magnet device can be used to treat some types of migraine, new Research advises.
The NICE says although there is limited evidence, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may help ease symptoms in some patients.
It says that the procedure is still relatively new and that more data is needed about its long-term safety and efficacy.
But it may be useful for patients for whom other treatments have failed.
“Huge numbers of sufferers find their lives blighted by migraine”
Migraine is common – it affects about one in four women and one in 12 men in the UK.
There are several types –
- with and without aura
- with or without headache – and several treatment options, including common painkillers, such as paracetamol.
Although there is no cure for migraine, it is often possible to prevent or lessen the severity of attacks.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation(TMS), under the supervision of a specialist doctor – it would be a cost-effective therapy for Migraine
“TMS involves using a portable device that is placed on the scalp to deliver a brief magnetic pulse.”
Prof Peter Goadsby, said many migraine patients stood to benefit from trying TMS.
In a trial in 164 patients, TMS worked twice as compared to placebo therapy and about 40% were pain-free two hours after using the device.
Wendy Thomas, said: “Huge numbers of sufferers find their lives blighted by migraine. The TMS may help deliver brighter futures to many people for whom other treatments have not worked.“
Cancer-killing “sticky balls” can destroy tumour cells in the blood and may prevent cancers spreading, early research suggests.
The most dangerous and deadly stage of a tumour is when it spreads around the body.
Scientists, have designed nanoparticles that stay in the bloodstream and kill migrating cancer cells on contact.
They said the impact was “dramatic” but there was “a lot more work to be done”.
One of the biggest factors in life expectancy after being diagnosed with cancer is whether the tumour has spread to become a metastatic cancer.
“About 90% of cancer deaths are related to metastases,” said lead researcher
Prof Michael KingLead researcher said “The results are quite remarkable”
On the trail
The team at Cornell devised a new way of tackling the problem.
They attached a cancer-killing protein called Trail, and other sticky proteins to tiny spheres or nanoparticles.
When these sticky spheres were injected into the blood, they latched on to white blood cells.
Tests showed that in the rough and tumble of the bloodstream, the white blood cells would bump into any tumour cells which had broken off the main tumour and were trying to spread.
Experiment showed the resulting contact with the Trail protein then triggered the death of the tumour cells.
Researchers Said The data shows a dramatic effect: it’s not a slight change in the number of cancer cells.
“The results are quite remarkable actually, in human blood and in mice. After two hours of blood flow, they [the tumour cells] have literally disintegrated.”
Adoption with Caution
He believes the nanoparticles could be used before surgery or radiotherapy, which can result in tumour cells being shed from the main tumour.
It could also be used in patients with very aggressive tumours to prevent them spreading.
However, much more safety testing in mice and larger animals will be needed before any attempt at a human trial is made.
So far the evidence suggests the system has no knock-on effect for the immune system and does not damage other blood cells or the lining of blood vessels.
But cautioned: “There’s a lot of work to be done. Various breakthroughs are needed before this could be a benefit to patients.”