MEDICINE OSCE SLIDES

1.TRUE CUT BIOPSY

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  • LIVER BIOPSY
  • THYROID BIOPSY
  • RENAL BIOPSY

Contraindications:

  •  LOCAL INFECTION
  • COAGULOPATHY
  • ABSCESS FORMATION

2. X RAY CHEST PNEUMOTHORAX

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  • JET BLACK SHADOW ON LEFT LOWER ZONE
  • COLLAPSE LUNGS
  • TRACHEA SHIFT RIGHT SIDE

3. LIVEDO RETICULARIS.

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  • ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME
  • SLE

C. URINE EXMANIATION

COOMB TEST

4. KOILONYCHIA

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  • B. MCV
  • SERUM FERRITIN
  • TIBC
  • TRANSFERRIN SATURATION

C.IRON REPLACEMENT THERAPY

BLOOD TRANSFUSION

5. KOILONYCHIA

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B. IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA

C. IRON PROFILE

6. CHEST X RAY PLUERAL EFFUSION

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B. HOMOGENOUS OPAQUE SHADOW  ON LEFT SIDE WITH

LOSS OF CARDIO-PHRENIC AND COSTO-PHRENIC ANGLE

  • T.B
  • PNEUMONIA
  • SLE
  • CCF
  • RA

7. INSULIN SYRINGE

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  • D.M
  • HEPARIN
  • B-INTERFERON

8. RHEUMATOID ARTHIRITIS

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B.SWAN NECK DEFORMITY

C. ANTI CCP

9. CLUBBING OF FINGERS

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  • CIRRHOSIS
  • COPD
  • BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS

10. JAUNDICE

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  • HEPATITIS
  • HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA

C. LFT

SERUM BILIRUBIN LEVELS

11. MALAR RASH

IMG_2070B. ANA, Anti-dsDNA

C. Hydroxychloroquine

12. BELLS PALSY

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  • 2. Corticosteroids
  • Physiotherapy

13. SPINE X RAY ANKYLOSING SPONDILITIS

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B. BAMBOO SPINE

  • C. BRIDGING SYNDESMOPHYTES
  • FUSION OF VERTEBRAL JOINT

13. CUSHING SYNDROME

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  • THIN PAPRY SKIN (5)
  • BUFALLO HUMP (7)
  • SKIN STRIA (3)
  • CENTRAL OBESITY (2)
  • TRUNCAL OBESITY (4)
  • SKIN BRUISE (6)

14. ACHLASIA CARDIA

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  • B. CHAGAS DISEASE
  • AMYLOIDOSIS
  • SARCODOSIS

TREATMENT:

  1. PNEUMATIC DILATION
  2. ENDOSCPIC DILATION
  3. HELLERS MYOTOMY

15. LP NEEDLE

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  • B. CSF EXAMINATION
  • INTRATHECAL INJECTION
  • SPINAL ANEASTHESIA
  1. C. RAISED ICP
  2. INFECTION

16. PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW METER

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  • B. 450 – 600ml (MALE)
  • 350-550ml (FEMALE)

17. BRONCHIECTASIS.

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  • B. HELICAL CT SCAN
  • CHEST XRAY

Complications:

  1. COR POLMONALE
  2. RESPIRATORY FAILURE
  3. AMYLOIDOSIS

18. BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

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  • PFT
  • 20% DIURINAL VARIATION ON PEF DIARY
  • DECREASE IN FEV1 OF >15% AFTER 6 MIN EXCERSICE
  1. OXYGEN THERAPY
  2. INHALED BETA AGONIST
  3. INHALED CORTICOSTEROIDS

 

19. PLUERAL EFFUSION.

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B. AS SAME AS ABOVE

  • C. PA CHEST X RAY
  • ULTRASOUND
  • DIAGNOSTIC TAP

20. SLE WITH ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODY SYNDROME

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  • DOPPLER ULTRASOUND OF LOWER LIMB
  • APTT
  • Anti-dsDNA
  • URINE DR

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21. MENINGITIS

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  • B. LUMPER PUNCTURE – CSF EXAMINATION
  • BLOOD CULTURE
  1. CEFTRIAXONE 2g 12 HOURLY
  2. STEROID THERAPY

21. C.A PNEUMONIA

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  • CHEST X RAY
  • BLOOD CULTURE
  • SPUTUM CULTURE
  1. C. PENICILLIN G
  2. AMOXICILLIN

DR.QADRI

1.MITRAL STENOSIS WITH ATRIAL FIBRILLATION

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  • CHEST X-RAY
  • ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
  • ECG

2. HYPOTHYROIDISM

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  • THYROID ANTIBODIES
  • TFT
  • ECG
  1. C. IODINE SUPPLEMENTS
  2. LEVOTHYROXINE

3. 3rd CRANIAL NERVE EXAMINATION

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  • EYE MOVEMENT
  • PTOSIS

B. CAUSES

4. CHEST X RAY PLEURAL EFFUSION

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  • D/D HYDRO-PNEMOTHORAX
  • MASS LESION

5. ADDISON DISEASE

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  1. SHORT ACTH-STIMULATION TEST

GLUCOCORTICOID= HYDROCORTISONE

MINERALOCORTICOID= FLUDROCORTISONE

6. ACROMEGALY

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  • 2.TRANS-SPHENOID SURGERY
  • OCTREOTIDE
  • PEGVISOMANT
  • BROMOCRIPTINE
  1. ?

7. HYPERTHYROIDISM

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  1. GRAVES DISEASE
  2. TOXIC ADENOMA
  3. DE QUERVAIN THYOIDITIS

TREATMENT:

  • PROPYLTHIOURACIL
  • CARBAMIZIPINE
  • RADIOACTIVE IODINE
  • SUB-TOTAL THYROIDECTOMY

 

8. G.B SYNDROME

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  • CSF FINDINGS= ALBUMINOCYTOLOGIC DISSOCIATION
  • ELECTROMYOGRAPHY

9. DIABETIC KETOACEDOSIS

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  • URINE KETONES
  • ELECTROLYTES
  • ABG

TREATMENT:

  1. FLUID
  2. INSULIN
  3. ELECTROLYTE REPLACEMENT
  4. ANTIBIOTICS

10.HYPOGLYCEMIA

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B. BLOOD SUGAR

C. 25% DEXTROSE WATER SOLUTION

11. ECG

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RATE = 60

12. IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA

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  • MENSIS HISTORY
  • DIET INTAKE
  • WORM INFESTATION

13. WILSON DISEASE

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B. AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE

D. PENICILLAMINE

14. T.B

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15. CHEST XRAY – PLUERAL EFFUSION

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A. LEFT SIDE= HOMOGENEOUS OPACITY WITH BLUNT CARDIOPHRENIC AND COSTO PHRENIC ANGLE

RIGHT SIDE= JET BLACK SHADOW

  • B. DIAGNOSTIC TAP
  • GRAM STAIN
  • CULTURE
  • ULTRA SOUND

16. CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKAEMIA

IMG_2210

  • B. RNA ANALYSIS= BCR/APL GENE PRODUCT
  • CHROMOSOME ANALYSIS = PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME
  1. C. IMITINIB/DUSATINIB
  2. BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION

17. UMN LESION

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2. CT SCAN

18. DENGUE

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19. 5th CRANIAL NERVE EXAMINATION

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B. CAUSE=

20. LYMPHOMA

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21. TYPHOID FEVER

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22. PRIMARY BILLIARY CIRRHOSIS

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23. DISSEMINATED T.B

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24. SPONTANEOUS BACTERIAL PERITONITIS

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25. CEREBRAL MALARIA

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26. D.M

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A. EXERCISE, DIET CONTROL

B. METFORMIN

27. STROKE

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28. PNEUMONIA

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29. HYPERTHYROIDISM

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30 MEGALOBLASTIC ANEMIA

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Microsoft Hololens Could be Future of Medical Learning.

Microsoft (Company Behind Windows ) have recently showcased a Headset device called HOLOLENS, a smart glass which can present 3D Presentation in Real World.

In the video, the Microsoft talks about how through its partnership is transforming the way human anatomy is taught to prospective doctors.

On the video, medicine students can create holographic projection of the human body. This way students can see how bones, muscles Arteries as well as other organs of the human body work without the need to dissect a cadaver.

Student using Hololens said “I had a moment where I found the aortic valve and it was actually the first time i’d seen the valve in relation to all the other anatomical structures. It was a way of seeing it that you couldn’t do with an actual heart, he added.”

Through the use of HoloLens’ augmented reality environment, students and teachers can create simulations of several medical situation without the need of a live human patient which in turn creates a low-stress environment for future medical practitioners.

ENT OSPE SLIDES CMC Batch #39

 Slide 01: Tonsillectomy Instrument.

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Slide 02: Acute Tonsillitis.DSC05783

Slide 03: Acute Tonsillitis.

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Slide 04: QUINSY.

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Slide 05: Proof Washout / Antrum Washout.

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Slide 06: Direct Laryngoscopy.

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  • DSC05788

Slide 07: Indirect Laryngoscopy.

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  • DSC05790

Slide 08: Auricle Hematoma.

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Slide 09: Tracheostomy.

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  • DSC05793

Slide  10: Hearing & Deafness.

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Slide 11: Ossicles.

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Slide 12: Anterior Nasal Packing,

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Slide 13: Deviated Nasal Septum.

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  • DSC05798

Slide 14: Tympanic Membrane. LABEL IT

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Slide 15: Rinnes Test.

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Slide 16: CSOM

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Slide 17: Otosclerosis. (Types)


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Slide 18: Ethmoidal Polyp.

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Slide 19: Antrachoanal Polyp.

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Slide 20: Plain X-ray View Head.

  1. Frontal Sinus
  2. Orbital Shadow
  3. Maxillary Sinus
  4. Nasal Septum
  5. Nasal Cavity
  6. Inferior Turbinates

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Slide 21: DNS (Types)

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Slide 22: CSOM (tubo-tympanic type)

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Slide 23: Adenoid Curate.

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Slide 24: Nasal Packing.

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Slide 25: Saddle Nose Deformity.

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Slide 26: Weber Test.

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Slide 27: Tonsillectomy – Dissection Method.

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Slide 28: Tonsiller Piller Retractor.

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Slide 29: Boyles Davis Mouth Gag.

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Slide 30: Tuning Fork.

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Slide 31: Chronic Rhino-sinusitis.

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Slide 32: Nasal Speculum.

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Slide 33: Tonsillectomy – Rose Position.

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Slide 34:  Endaural Incision.

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ENT OSPE Slides LUMHS batch 2010

Slide: Laryngoscope

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Slide: Air way 1506679_675733242462089_76087616894349124_n

Slide: anterior rhinoscopy 1513847_675733319128748_7811944035598282094_n

Slide: acute follicular tonsillitis 1544496_675733635795383_6893207929256482026_n

Slide: Endotracheal tube 1604708_675733219128758_5782584191324388784_n

Slide: mass at glottis 1798518_675733039128776_1623035155696037669_n

Slide: growth in mouth 1922018_675733515795395_3095417811912644976_n

Slide: TM 1925327_675732662462147_3958363978219072435_n

Slide: tracheostomy tube .. metallic 1959301_675733085795438_1016064981331320966_n

Slide: examination of ear 1959385_675732625795484_309065994661697547_n

Slide: Hemmatoma of the pinna
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Slide: IDL10151846_675732975795449_301007566450245385_n

 

Slide: CSOM wid complication (post aural sinus)

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Slide: For labelling From Above:

  1. median raphe
  2. palate
  3. uvula
  4. tonsil
  5. base of tongue

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Slide: mastoiditis 10155531_675732842462129_2277937750380528349_n

Slide: posterior rhinoscopy 10155734_675733342462079_8222562441931026407_n

Slide: posterior rhinoscopy Nasal polyp

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Slide: external nasal deformity 10169376_675733399128740_1475793785330289357_n

Slide: Xray neck and chest PA view .. Showing foreign body 10171281_675733252462088_2615269213144715732_n

Slide: perforation wid cholesteotoma 10172596_675732772462136_447359181690758121_n

Slide: Septal Perforation
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Slide: tonsillar snare 10174992_675733539128726_2255511666767825982_n

Slide: portex tracheostomy tube

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Slide: aural hematoma .. generalized 10178043_675732829128797_7224281571694756301_n

Slide: Anterior Septal Dislocation 10247354_675733412462072_536489717732278924_n

Slide: bronchoscope 10253862_675733175795429_146095633075788404_n

Slide: TM wid Grommet 10253900_675732892462124_356670526975412769_n

Slide: septal hematoma 10253900_675733619128718_252779873392788359_n

Slide: oropharynx 10253915_675733469128733_6664718219094174271_n

Slide: Boil10256892_675733569128723_1770384483982559763_n

Slide: quinsy 10259808_675733595795387_4942064378639012329_n

Slide: TM
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Slide: central TM perforation 10271504_675732749128805_4834629967590744492_n
Slide: Perforations

  • Central Type ( Above Pic)
  • Attic on the left and marginal on Right

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Slide: perichondritis 10271568_675732802462133_5133855769329193728_n

Slide: facial palsy (of right side) 10271606_675732925795454_4039335568329239682_n

Slide: Xray contrast lateral view ov neck and chest .. Barium swallow 10277825_675733269128753_6542359356516900442_n

Slide: vocal nodules 10290704_675733025795444_5424066869374535467_n

Slide: trocar and canula 10295775_675733442462069_2137119918752998861_n

Slide: indirect laryngoscopy 10295786_675732945795452_1036709634137733499_n

Slide: tunning fork and its tests 10297662_675732635795483_1308058474842796047_n

Slide: Vocal Cord10299974_675733009128779_2023458099860839169_n

Slide: Central Perfration (CSOM)10308156_675732719128808_5626805756630800747_n

Slide: person having tracheostomy tube with post operative tracheostomy care.

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Slide: esophagioscope 10309039_675733189128761_1789698408060501818_n

All you need to know: EBOLA & its OUTBREAK !

What is Ebola?

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Ebola is a deadly disease caused by a virus. There are five strains, and four of them can make people sick. After entering the body, it kills cells, making some of them explode. It wrecks the immune system, causes heavy bleeding inside the body, and damages almost every organ.

The virus is scary, but it’s also rare. You can get it only from direct contact with an infected person’s body fluids.

How do you get it?

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You get Ebola from a person who has the virus, and only while he or she has symptoms. People pass it to others through their body fluids. Blood, stool, and vomit are the most infectious, but semen, urine, sweat, tears, and breast milk also carry it.

To get Ebola, you’d have to get these fluids in your mouth, nose, eyes, genitals, or a break in your skin. You could also pick it up from items that have fluids on them, like needles or sheets.

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How You Won’t Get Ebola

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You can’t get Ebola from casual contact, like sitting next to an infected person. Air, food, and water don’t carry the virus. But kissing or sharing food or a drink with someone who has Ebola could be a risk, since you might get his saliva in your mouth.

What are the symptoms?

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It can take from 2 to 21 days, but usually 8 to 10 days, after infection for signs of Ebola to appear. Symptoms can seem like the flu at first — sudden fever, feeling tired, muscle pains, headache, and sore throat.

As the disease gets worse, it causes

  • Vomiting, Diarrhea
  • Rash
  • Bruising 
  • Bleeding without an injury, like from the eyes or gums.

Where is Ebola?

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There have been 33 Ebola outbreaks since 1976, but the 2014 outbreak in West Africa is by far the largest. The virus has infected thousands of people and killed more than half of them. It started in Guinea and spread to Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Nigeria. A man who had traveled to the U.S. from Africa died of Ebola in October.

World Health Organization  raised the death toll attributed to the Ebola outbreak. The Geneva-based U.N. agency said that 4,033 confirmed, probable or suspected Ebola deaths have now been recorded.

Is There a Vaccine for Ebola?

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There is no approved medicine or vaccine to treat or prevent Ebola. Scientists have tested some drugs on animals, which seemed to work. But they haven’t studied how the medications affect humans. Researchers are also studying two new vaccines that could prevent Ebola, but they still need to test them in more people to see if they’re safe and if they work.

Treatment

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Since there aren’t any drugs to fight the virus, health care teams treat the person’s symptoms and offer basic support care. They:

  • Keep the person hydrated with fluids through an IV.
  • Give oxygen.
  • Maintain their blood pressure.
  • Treat any other infections they have.
  • ZMapp, the experimental treatment rushed to two Americans infected with Ebola in Africa, is grown in specially modified leaves of tobacco — a plant better known for harming health than healing is proven to be effective in saving lives of people infected with Ebola

A person’s survival depends on how well his immune system works. The sooner he gets medical care, the better the chances he’ll recover.

How Can I Prevent It?

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The best way to avoid Ebola is to stay away from areas where the virus is common. If you are in an outbreak area:

  • Avoid infected people, their body fluids, and the bodies of anyone who has died from the disease.
  • Avoid contact with wild animals, like bats and monkeys, and their meat.
  • Wash your hands often.

Reference: Google Search

The 5 Greatest Medical Inventions of Last “50” years

1st

In today’s world, technology is king. This is especially true in the healthcare industry where innovation and technology are giving doctors and care givers the ability to better predict diseases, more accurately diagnose illnesses, perform complex surgeries with ease, and improve the lives of people all around the world.

Continue reading

The Top 5 Major Milestones of Pakistan since independence.

A NUCLEAR STATE

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After uneasy relationships with India, Afghanistan, the former Soviet Union, and the energy shortage, explains its motivation to become a nuclear power as part of its defence and energy strategies

India as a rogue state threatening the sovereignty of Pakistan and the very existence substantially increased when Pakistan  became aware of advancing Indian nuclear program towards making the bombs.

For Pakistan it meant “a (nuclear) India would further undermine and threaten Pakistan’s security, and for her survival,

Therefore Pakistan needed a nuclear deterrent to counter and neutralize the balance of power in South Asia which India Shifted toward itself by declaring himself a nuclear state

In January 1972 under the leadership of Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, who delegated the program to, Abdul Qadeer Khan as the founder of Pakistan’s integrated atomic bomb project.

Soon Pakistan became the seventh country in the world to successfully develop and test nuclear weapons.

TARBELA DAM

Tarbela_Dam,_KPK,_Pakistan
Tarbela Dam

A Reservoir of water was consciously needed for irrigation purpose, the country survives through. Rivers which flow through country should necessary be channelled properly to cultivate crops to feed the poorly bitten country. Fortunately as Consequent to the Indus Basin Water Treaty, concluded between India and Pakistan, major water reservoirs were planned to be constructed in Pakistan to store water mainly for irrigation . One was on the river Jhelm at Mangla and the other on River Indus near the small town of Tarbela.

The Terbla Dam  on the Indus River in Pakistan is the largest earth filled dam in the world and second largest by structural volume.

It is located in Haripur District, Hazara Division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, about 50 kilometres  of Islamabad.The construction of dam was completed in 1974 and a major limestone was laid down in the history of Pakistan and was designed to store water from the Indus River for irrigation, flood control,

In addition to fulfilling primary purpose of the Dam i.e. supplying water for Irrigation, Tarbela Power Station has generated 341.139 Billion kWh of cheap hydro-electric energy since commissioning. The Dam is Providing cheap sustaining energy to the people of Pakistan where load shedding of electricity a daily dilemma  Lighting the Homes ever since.

MOTORWAYSPakistan_Nationalhighways

Motorways of Pakistan, an Ambition project in the history of Pakistan which will revolutionized the way people transport between cities. its like a dream for a common man to travel for their destination hassle free,as comfortable as possible

The aims to link Pakistan’s three Arabian Sea ports (Karachi Port, Port Bin Qasim and Gwadar Port) to the rest of the country and further north with Afghanistan, Central Asia and China.

Motorways are a network of multiple-lane, high-speed, limited-access or controlled-access highways in Pakistan, which are owned, maintained and operated federally by Pakistan’s National Highway Authority.

Most of the area of Punjab are covered through M-1 M-2 M-3 & M-4 Motorways while construction were made delays in Sindh due to political mischiefs. !

World Cup 1992

1992_Cricket_World_Cup
Kaptan Imran Khan Lifting World Cup Trophy

Ask any Pakistani what the happiest moment of his life has been and, excluding “the birth of my child”, you’re likely to receive a personal re-enactment of the day Imran Khan and company conquered by beating England in the final to become the World Cup champions for the first time in Melbourne  March 25, 1992.

Large Non Profit Public Health SectorsPCP-Logo

In comparison to other countries, Pakistan performs remarkable in charitable involvement and sprite of volunteerism. Following are three major charitable organisation which are flourished by generous people of Pakistan

  • Edhi FoundationEdhifoundation

Edhi Foundation is Largest Voluntary Ambulance Organization of the World and operates free nursing homes, orphanages, clinics, women’s shelters, and rehab centers for drug addicts and mentally ill individuals.

  • Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantationsiut

SIUT is a dialysis & kidney transplant centre. It’s Pakistan largest kidney disease centre as well as Public health sector. 10-12 Kidney transplants weekly and in 2003 doctors performed Pakistan’s first liver transplant, are provided free of cost.

It was founded by Dr. Adibul Hasan Rizvi

  • Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital & Research CentreSKMCH2012Aug07023455

It’s a state-of-the-art non-profit cancer research centre and hospital in Lahore, the first and only cancer hospital of international standards in Pakistan

Dedicated to providing first-class treatment of cancer to all its patients, irrespective of their ability to pay. The institution is invention infamous Pakistani cricket superstar Imran Khan.

 


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LAUGHING PUTS THE BRAIN IN A MEDITATIVE STATE

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Laughing Buddha

Laughing could dramatically improve your health – and be as good for you as a deep state of meditation, researchers have found.

Studying the effects of the stress hormone cortisol on the brain, the researchers, decided to investigate whether laughter could affect its destructive impact on the body.

They found that laughter reduces the negative effects of cortisol and could be used as a therapy, offering a pleasant solution to the patients with hypertension, diabetes or heart problems.

“Things are simple: the less stress one has, the better his memory is,” says Dr. Lee Berk, who took part in the study.“Humour reduces the destructive action of hormones associated with stress such as cortisol, which acts on hippocampal neurons responsible for memory function, and reduces the levels of blood pressure, thus improving our mood” explains the researcher.

“Laughter stimulates the release of endorphins and dopamine in the brain, giving us a sense of satisfaction and reward. These beneficial neurochemicals changes, in turn, make the immune system work better,” says Dr. Berk

As shown by the results of the study, laughter causes changes in the brain waves, specifically, gamma waves, which seems to boost memory retrieval processes.

“Laughter leads to the production of brain wave frequencies similar to those observed in people in a meditative state,” adds Dr. Berk.


Research Study

As part of their study, the scientists showed funny videos lasting 20 minutes to a group of healthy elderly people and a group of elderly diabetic patients. Then they asked the volunteers to complete a questionnaire to assess their skills towards learning, memory retrieval and visual recognition. Finally, the results were compared to those of a control group who had the same age but did not watch the videos.

The researchers went on to measure the levels of cortisol both at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. As a result, they detected a significant reduction in levels of the stress hormone in both groups who had watched the videos and showed improvement in the ability to recall their memories compared to the control group.

Specifically, the largest decline in the levels of cortisol was detected in the case of the group of patients with diabetes, while the members of the group of healthy volunteers showed the highest score in the memory test.

“The findings of our study provide potential clinical benefits that could find application in particular in the case of older people,” says study author Dr. Gurinder.

Courtesy: Science Journal Paper

 

Sleep’s-Memory role discovered!

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The mechanism by which a good night’s sleep improves learning and memory has been discovered by scientists.

The team in China and the US used advanced microscopy to witness new connections between brain cells – synapses – forming during sleep.

Their study,  showed even intense training could not make up for lost sleep.

Experts said it was an elegant and significant study, which uncovered the mechanisms of memory.

It is well-known that sleep plays an important role in memory and learning. But what actually happens inside the brain has been a source of considerable debate.

They then looked inside the living brain with a microscope to see what happened when the animals were either sleeping or sleep deprived.

Their study showed that sleeping mice formed significantly more new connections between neurons – they were learning more.

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A connection between two brain cells And by disrupting specific phases of sleep, the research group showed deep or slow-wave sleep was necessary for memory formation.

During this stage, the brain was “replaying” the activity from earlier in the day.

Prof Wen-Biao Said: “Finding out sleep promotes new connections between neurons is new, nobody knew this before.

“We thought sleep helped, but it could have been other causes, and we show it really helps to make connections and that in sleep the brain is not quiet, it is replaying what happened during the day and it seems quite important for making the connections.”

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Analysis

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This is just the latest piece of science to highlight the importance of sleep.

 

A new reason for sleep was discovered last year when experiments showed the brain used sleep to wash away waste toxins built up during a hard day’s thinking.

However, there are concerns that people are not getting enough sleep.

Prof Russell Foster argued that society had become “supremely arrogant” in ignoring the importance of sleep, leading to “serious health problems”.

These include:

  • Cancer
  • Heart disease
  • Type-2 diabetes
  • Infections
  • Obesity

The reward for more sleep, Prof Foster argues, is we would all be “better human beings.”

USMLE Step 1 Students Guidebook

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The Step 1 examination is the first component of the USMLE and is taken by medical students and graduates seeking to practice medicine in the United States. The overall purpose of the Step 1 exam is to assess an individual’s basic science knowledge. The content that comprises this multiple choice exam is organized into general science principles and individual organ systems. Most of the questions place a strong emphasis on the application of basic science principles in the practice of clinical medicine.

USMLE is 3 step Exam which provides essential Gateway to move and study USA. This license Examination provides Convenience chance to talented students to achieve practical skills and residency abroad

Just like – A driver who wish to drive a vehicle, he must acquire a driving license, Similarly A Doctor who desires to Practice and pursue his Career abroad (USA), he/she must have a License to operate which he/she can achieve by Passing through USMLE

WHY TO DO USMLE ?

USMLE Not only commits your access point to settle in USA but it is acceptable in Middle East Countries Like Qatar, Dubai and other Countries.

USMLE is more preferable in Middle East than other Licensing Examination and Gives you the Edge over the other candidates to achieve residency

HOW TO QUALIFY USMLE Step 1 ?

EXAMINATION CONTENT

Step 1 includes test items in the following content areas:

  • Anatomy
  • Behavioural sciences
  • Biochemistry
  • Microbiology
  • Pathology
  • Pharmacology
  • Physiology
  • Interdisciplinary topics, such as nutrition, genetics, and aging

BOOKS

  • Kaplan USMLE Step 1 Lecture Note  – Anatomy, Behavioural Science , Microbiology, Immunology, Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Physiology.

  • Goljan Rapid Review Pathology
  • Bio statics and Epidemiology
  • Kaplan Medical USMLE Medical Ethics – 100 Cases (Behavioural science)
  • USMLE First Aid 2014 (For All Subject Reviews)

CHOOSE THE RIGHT RESOURCES

Choosing the right resources will depend partly on your learning style, but there are a few that are must-haves.

1. Kaplan Series

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Kaplan Medical Series

Kaplan series consist of set of Books with Anatomy, Microbiology, Immunology, Pharmacology, Biochemistry, Physiology Subject.

It comes with 17 DVD’s of Video Content related to subjects.

Pathology From Kaplan should be Avoided instead it’s better to go for Goljan, It’s the best

2. First Aid for the USMLE Step 1

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First Aid USMLE Step 1

I don’t say this for very many things, but First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 is a must-have.

First Aid is essentially a very condensed version of most of the things you’ll learn in your first and second year of medical school (at least the material that will be covered on the USMLE exam). If you use this book during your curriculum, you’ll be able to have a summary of the things you’ve learned,

One tip I have is to not spend a ton of time on the biochemistry section of First Aid. Understand the key steps that have to do with certain diseases (e.g. what does lead poisoning or B12 deficiency effect), but don’t try to memorize full pathways.

3. Rapid Review Pathology by Goljan

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Goljan Pathology Review

This book is similar to First Aid in that the material is condensed into bullet points. However, it has more information about the “why” of diseases than First Aid.

It gives great explanations about pathophysiology and this material is stressed heavily on Step 1.

4. A Question Bank

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QBANK USMLE World

There’s always the debate about whether Kaplan or USMLE World is the better question bank. USMLE world is better and you will love it.U world is an online testing service software with 2200 bank of question pool

The thing that impress the most about USMLE World was how similar the questions on the QBank were to those on the actual exam. When I came to the test, I felt as though I was just taking another set of questions from USMLE World.

Also, the explanations of questions are great. They give detailed explanations of why the right answer is right and why the wrong answers are wrong. This made the QBank a very efficient study tool.

So, It is recommended buying the QBank for the amount of time you have committed solely to your USMLE review (probably 2-3 months) Costing $159.

Study strategy and Schedule

Month 1-2. Sunday to Friday read a new section in First Aid USMLE and the corresponding section in Goljan’s book. Read new material in the morning , new material in the afternoon and review the material from the day at night . The night review would sometimes include QBank questions on the related topics. On Saturday review the things that I had studied in the previous days. This would include questions about the topics.

Take breaks at times during my studies to go play games, Exercise, or watch TV. I study a lot better when I take breaks between. You might be different.

Your main goal in these months Should be to finish going through First Aid and Goljan twice by two weeks before the test date.

Month 3. This is where you should start doing more questions from Qbank U world. Finish most of First Aid and Goljan.

Test day. On test day, make sure you bring snacks and food. It’s a very, very long test. I would also recommend taking all of your breaks.

So, with all of this, you will able to surpass your target score . Again, this is what work mostly and may not work as well for you.

But, KAPLAN, USMLE World, First Aid and Goljan Pathology are top-notch resources no matter your study preferences.

STUDY TIPS

  1. If you counter any hard topics which Mold Hard bitten time while referring Kaplan Series then you Must Watch video lectures included within Kaplan series

For which Subject i should watch video Lectures?

  • Physiology Video lecture are Mandatory
  • Behavioural Science Video Lecture Should be Must Seen
  • Refer Genetic videos in Biochemistry Section
  • Pharmacology Lectures
  1. First complete your Kaplan lecture and you don’t need to watch videos for each topic. go for it only when you don’t understand the topic. There is no need to watch Kaplan DVDs of all subjects. But pharmacology and behavioural sciences are a must.
  2. No Text Book is necessary, Don’t waste your time in reading Full Content of textbook, it’s Unnecessary and it would not efficacious.
  3. Orient yourself
  4. .Join Library or Peaceful Environment

  5. Start with Easy Subjects Like Physiology and Biochemistry

  6. Don’t Panic yourself and take distant from Family affairs and issues

  7. Consistency and Focus is essential

  8. First read is all about understanding and making concepts. Don’t emphasize on cramming at this stage

  9. First Read on All Subjects can take about 3 Months, so be patience

  10. Stay away from Cross Questions from Position Holders which may depress you.

  11. Turn off your cell phones when Exams are around the corner.

EXAM FORMAT

  • USMLE Step 1 Exams are Conducted in pro metric centre in Karachi and Islamabad
  • The exam is an eight-hour computer-based test taken in a single-day,
  • From 1st January to 15th the USMLE Exams are not conducted due to General Holidays in United States, so you not apply in these days
  • Before Starting the Exam you will be shown a tutorial Video of about 12 mins, Showing Pattern regarding exams. But you can skip to save your time by watching it on the web before Exam
  • The exam consists on 8 Blocks in which questions of different Subjects are randomly arranged
  • In each Block there are 46 questions to answer, Mostly based on clinically scenario type
  • Time Limit for each block is 60 Min which consist of 46 questions, that means you will have 78 seconds to answer each question
  • During whole exam time, the test taker is allotted a cumulative 45 minutes (during the test day) for personal breaks.
  • To increase your Stamina and Concentration during this lengthy Exam you must use CNS stimulants as Caffeine and avoid amphetamine drugs
  • Be Confident, Don’t Panic, Stay Focused
  • Do Easy Questions First and Later Difficult time taking questions
  • Attempt Every Question as there is No Negative Marking
  • Take Deep Breath for anxiety and Panic

Total Time allowed for this Examination is 8 hours including your 1 hour Break time and are 322 question to reply

EXAM FEES

  • Entire exam fees is about $1030 ?
  • Including the USMLE Qbank 2 month Subscription Costing $159

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p>Total Price = $1180

Answer of Queries and feedback

  • ideal time to attempt for USMLE is in Final year MBBS
  • every one has his own style of study. u need to schedule ur time for studies n other stuff.
  • DON’T STUDY ONLY, DO OTHER WORK ALSO like watching tv etc
  • Pointless efforts are never productive, it’s not speed, its direction which takes you to the right place
  • last read to First Aid after uworld along with Uworld self-assessment online and you’re ready for the exam.
  • Note: Do first aid and uworld very well. They cover almost everything asked in exam.

It’s about time to focus on cancer preventions

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The globe is facing a “tidal wave” of cancer, and restrictions on alcohol and sugar need to be considered, say World Health Organization.

It predicts the number of cancer cases will reach 24 million a year by 2035, but half could be prevented.

The WHO said there was now a “real need” to focus on cancer prevention by tackling smoking, obesity and drinking.

The World Cancer Research Fund said there was an “alarming” level of naivety about diet’s role in cancer.

Fourteen million people a year are diagnosed with cancer, but that is predicted to increase to 19 million by 2025, 22 million by 2030 and 24 million by 2035.

The developing world will bear the brunt of the extra cases

The director of the WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer,  “The global cancer burden is increasing and quite markedly, due predominately to the ageing of the populations and population growth.

Avertible Causes:

These are major sources of preventable cancer included:

  • Smoking

  • Infections

  • Alcohol

  • Obesity and inactivity

  • Radiation, both from the sun and medical scans

  • Air pollution and other environmental factors

  • Delayed parenthood, having fewer children and not breastfeeding

For most countries, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. However, cervical cancer dominates in large parts of Africa.

Dr Chris Wild, WHO: "We're not going to be able to address this problem by simply improving treatment"
Dr Chris Wild, WHO: “We’re not going to be able to address this problem by simply improving treatment”
 The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause. It is thought wider use of the HPV and other vaccines could prevent hundreds of thousands of cancers.

Prevention had a “crucial role in combating the tidal wave of cancer which we see coming across the world”.

In relation to alcohol, for example, we’re all aware of the acute effects, whether it’s car accidents or assaults, but there’s a burden of disease that’s not talked about because it’s simply not recognised, specifically involving cancer.

“The extent to which we modify the availability of alcohol, the labelling of alcohol, the promotion of alcohol and the price of alcohol – those things should be on the agenda.”

He said there was a similar argument to be had with sugar fuelling obesity, which in turn affected cancer risk.

Map showing cancer deaths across the world

Meanwhile, a survey of 2,046 people in the UK by the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) suggested 49% do not know that diet increases the risk of developing cancer.

Amanda McLean, general manager for the WCRF, said: “It’s very alarming to see that such a large number of people don’t know that there’s a lot they can do to significantly reduce their risk of getting cancer.

About a third of the most common cancers could be prevented through being a healthy weight, eating a healthy diet and being regularly physically active.

“These results show that many people still seem to mistakenly accept their chances of getting cancer as a throw of the dice, but by making lifestyle changes today, we can help prevent cancer tomorrow.”

It advises a diet packed with vegetables, fruit, and wholegrain; cutting down on alcohol and red meat; and junking processed meat completely.

“People can cut their risk of cancer by making healthy lifestyle choices, but it’s important to remember that the government and society are also responsible for creating an environment that supports healthy lifestyles.

“It’s clear that if we don’t act now to curb the number of people getting cancer, we will be at the heart of a global crisis in cancer care within the next two decades.”

Research: CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF SEMESTER AND ANNUAL SYSTEM

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Research Methodology

In this research, the main instrument for collecting primary data is questionnaire, Questionnaire, which consists the following questions and objectives.

  • Which system of examination Provides good grading criteria?
  • In which system of examination, students can obtain better marks.
  • In which system of examination Students can get better job opportunities
  • Which system Provides thorough understanding of concepts?
  • Under which system academic goals are focused?
  • In which system students does found busier in academic activities?
  • In which system Students does tested through different techniques?
  • Which system show better presentation skills?
  • In which system Students are academically over burden.
  • In which system, students are continuously Evaluated ?
  • To which system, teachers give consideration and concentration?
  • Which system is better for learning?

And Lastly Comparative study between Annual and Semester System of B Com and BBA students.

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Strength Of Research

The data collected through questionnaire give a realistic view of both systems of examination.
Researchers have personally collected data by face to-face meeting with students as well contacted them telephonically. This data is free from any bias and misinterpretation.

1: Which system of examination Provides good grading criteria?

Now we will see that how the students giving their responses to the effectiveness of both the systems. The data have collected through questionnaire from students of different institutions. The data show the following result regarding which system of examination provides good grading criteria. In compliance to this question, shows that 74% students out of 500 students have given preference to semester system and 20% students were in favour of annual system and remaining 6% students showed their tendency towards both systems. The questionnaire result can also be accessible with the help of diagram and pie chart as under.

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As clear from diagram and pie chart, most of the students inclined towards semester system of examination as far as better grading criteria is concerned. They distinguish that it is semester system in which students make good grades than other examination systems only 6% students favour both systems for better performance in examination

but overall it shows that majority of students favor semester system than other system.

2: In which system of examination, students can obtain better marks?


A questionnaire had distributed among 500 students of different colleges and institutions. In response, 420 students responded with semester system of examination and only 80 students showed their propensity towards annual systems, it means that 84% students out of 500 were favoured with semester system of examination. They consider that better marks can obtained through semester system of examination and only 16% were in favor of annual system. The data result is also presented with the help of figure as under.

CHART16

The figure illustrates the higher tendency level of student’s responses with favor of semester system and low-level with annual system.

3: In which system of examination Students can get better job opportunities?

The data collected through this questionnaire exhibits 250 students satisfy with semester system. They said that under semester system students could get jobs comparatively easily because students are up to date and secured better marks as well. Other 130 responded with annual system and remaining 120 students responded with both systems, 50% students  replied their views in favor of semester system of examination, 26% students showed their curiosity in annual system of examination and rest of 24% students have given their responses to both systems. We can also see the data presentation through diagrammatically as under.

CHART17

The questionnaire result show that students penchant regarding job opportunities and better job chances comes through semester system of education than other system.

4: Which system provides a thorough understanding of concept?


In compliance to this question, 350 students replied in favor of semester system out of 500, which shows that 70% students have given their assent for semester system, 16% , which were consisted 80 respondents, have given their consent for annual system. Other of 14%, which respondents have given their views for both system. The data have demonstrated with the help of the following diagram and chart.

CHART18

Most of the students from different institutes have participated in this questionnaire, researchers asked about the concept understanding, majority of the respondents have shown their tendency towards semester system, and in this regard, the above pie chart is evidence.

It seems that the large number of students believe that concept develops with semester system compare to annual system.

5: Under which system academic goals are focused?


In response, 45% students out of 500 responded that semester system is better than annual system because academic goals can easily achieved under semester system, 31% replied that annual system is better than semester system and remaining 24% replied both system are similar regarding focused academic goals. The collected data has postulated with the following diagram.

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The diagram presents the overall picture regarding annual and semester system of the inquired question.

It means semester system better in academic goals than annual system, and some students expressed their consents both system are equal in this regard.

6: In which system Students does tested through different techniques?


As compared to annual system, semester system has proved better. Most of the students who were participated and replied that semester system is better than annual system, 92% respondents out of 500 have shown their consent to semester system , they replied that student learns more in this system, only 8% of the population replied that annual system is better than semester. The data has presented in diagram is as under.

CHART14

It has cleared  from the above diagram that majority of the students shows the tendency towards semester system.

7: Which system show better presentation skills?

It is common practice that students who are studying under semester system are better in presentation and management skills than students of annual system are. Respondents have given their answer, when asked which system provides better presentation skills, the majority of student’s inclination towards semester system, which consist 500 students, all students have agreed that semester system provides better presentation skills than annual system. As we, can see responses with the help of following chart.

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All Respondents have absolutely in favor of semester system of examination, which shows 100% tendency towards it.

8: In which system students are academically overburden?

Under annual system, examination held at the end of each session /year, therefore most of the students does overburden academically. In semester system, examination held at the end of each semester, as course outlines divided into semesters, therefore students performs comparatively better. In this regard, 56% students have given their negative views about annual system, 16% respondents against semester system and remaining 28% responded to both systems. The outcome of the questionnaire in this regard is as under:

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The diagram shows that majority of students agree that we do have overburdened in annual system as compared to semester system of examination.

9: In which system students are continuously, Evaluated ?

Semester system provides opportunity for students to polish their selves with great extent through presentations, mid-term examinations, group discussions and submission of assignments etc with regular intervals.

In compliance to this question, 84% students responded for semester system, 10% students showed their consent for annual system and 6% respondents showed their expression for both systems.

CHART8

The above data from respondents shows that students can properly evaluate and appraise in semester system than annual system of examination.

10: To which system, teachers give consideration and concentration?


As we know that annual system takes more time to close the session, therefore the propensity of the teachers in semester system is greater than of annual system to teach with proper road map, full consideration and attention. The data collected through this questionnaire shows that majority of groups, that is 90 % responded to semester system , 6% responded for annual.

CHART19

The Blue Section shows the propensity of those students who showed their interest in semester system. Therefore, it is clear that targeted groups have given more time, consideration and concentration to semester system of examination.

11: Which system is better for learning?


In compliance to this question, 58 % students responded to semester system, they have agreed that semester system provides best learning opportunities. They consider that in semester system students’ goes through different techniques of learning, which are presentation skills, group discussions, assignment etc. On other hand 20% said that annual system of examination is best source of learning, and rest 22% replied that both systems of examination are better for learning perspective.

CHART12

They also said that learning depend upon students,  neither on examination system. We can also see the following diagram for further explanation.

Comparative results of B.Com / B.B.A  of two years of Government College of Management Sciences, Peshawar city, Pakistan

We have taken Government College of commerce, University of Peshawar,  Pakistan, as a sample. As  we know that, University of Peshawar conducts examination of B.Com through Annual system through out Province whereas B.B.A examination conducts through semester system, but here readers will observe visible difference in results of same college of same university. The semester system of examination is better in respect of aggregate as well in individual results than annual system of examination as actual data/results of year 2010-2011 reveals itself :

Passed

In 2011, there were 265 students appeared for examination, in which 135 have passed and 130 students have failed whereas in same year 265 students have given the B.B.A examination in which 255 students have passed and 10 have failed.

The above data evident, that the Failure ratio was comparatively high in annual system of examination

Reference: International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences
September 2012, Vol. 2, No. 9

Migraine sufferers ‘may benefit from magnet therapy’

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There is a variety of treatments on offer, but no cure

A magnet device can be used to treat some types of migraine, new Research advises.

The NICE says although there is limited evidence, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may help ease symptoms in some patients.

It says that the procedure is still relatively new and that more data is needed about its long-term safety and efficacy.

But it may be useful for patients for whom other treatments have failed.

“Huge numbers of sufferers find their lives blighted by migraine”

Migraine is common – it affects about one in four women and one in 12 men in the UK.

There are several types –

  • with and without aura
  • with or without headache – and several treatment options, including common painkillers, such as paracetamol.

Although there is no cure for migraine, it is often possible to prevent or lessen the severity of attacks.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation(TMS), under the supervision of a specialist doctor – it  would be a cost-effective therapy for Migraine

“TMS involves using a portable device that is placed on the scalp to deliver a brief magnetic pulse.”

NICE says doctors and patients might wish to try TMS, but they should be aware about the treatment’s uncertainties. Reduction in migraine
symptoms may be moderate.

Prof Peter Goadsby,  said many migraine patients stood to benefit from trying TMS.

In a trial in 164 patients, TMS worked twice as compared to placebo therapy and about 40% were pain-free two hours after using the device.

Wendy Thomas, said: “Huge numbers of sufferers find their lives blighted by migraine. The TMS may help deliver brighter futures to many people for whom other treatments have not worked.

‘Sticky balls’ may stop cancer spreading

Cancer-killing "sticky balls" containing cancer-killing protein called Trail
Cancer-killing “sticky balls” containing cancer-killing protein called Trail

Cancer-killing “sticky balls” can destroy tumour cells in the blood and may prevent cancers spreading, early research suggests.

The most dangerous and deadly stage of a tumour is when it spreads around the body.

Scientists, have designed nanoparticles that stay in the bloodstream and kill migrating cancer cells on contact.

They said the impact was “dramatic” but there was “a lot more work to be done”.

One of the biggest factors in life expectancy after being diagnosed with cancer is whether the tumour has spread to become a metastatic cancer.

“About 90% of cancer deaths are related to metastases,” said lead researcher

Prof Michael KingLead researcher said “The results are quite remarkable”

On the trail

The team at Cornell devised a new way of tackling the problem.

They attached a cancer-killing protein called Trail,  and other sticky proteins to tiny spheres or nanoparticles.

When these sticky spheres were injected into the blood, they latched on to white blood cells.

Tests showed that in the rough and tumble of the bloodstream, the white blood cells would bump into any tumour cells which had broken off the main tumour and were trying to spread.

Experiment showed the resulting contact with the Trail protein then triggered the death of the tumour cells.

Researchers Said The data shows a dramatic effect: it’s not a slight change in the number of cancer cells.

“The results are quite remarkable actually, in human blood and in mice. After two hours of blood flow, they [the tumour cells] have literally disintegrated.”

Adoption with Caution

He believes the nanoparticles could be used before surgery or radiotherapy, which can result in tumour cells being shed from the main tumour.

It could also be used in patients with very aggressive tumours to prevent them spreading.

However, much more safety testing in mice and larger animals will be needed before any attempt at a human trial is made.

So far the evidence suggests the system has no knock-on effect for the immune system and does not damage other blood cells or the lining of blood vessels.

But  cautioned: “There’s a lot of work to be done. Various breakthroughs are needed before this could be a benefit to patients.”

Pharmacological Chemotherapy Mnemonics

New Series of Mnemonics are no more than an Art piece.

Updated Content with Beautiful Design and Better Combination Scheme. Now its Pleasant to Watch and Read.

This is Our little Effort to Encourage Academic Activities among Students.

Knowledge is Power… Believe it & Share it

For Pharmacological CNS Mnemonics CLICK HERE

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Copyright © Sheeraz Abro.


Any Feedback or Comments are Highly Welcome.

Alzheimer’s Breakthrough as scientists manage to stop brain cells from dying

Alzheimer’s breakthrough hailed as ‘turning point’

The discovery of the first chemical to prevent the death of brain tissue in a neurodegenerative disease has been hailed as the “turning point” in the fight against Alzheimer’s disease.

Continue reading

Thank your parents if you’re smart: Up to 80% of a child’s intelligence is inherited.

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It’s all in the genes: A new study shows child’s intelligence is passed down from the parents.

Intelligent men owe their brains to their mothers, according to research published.

So What’s The Mystery Behind It !

Growing evidence shows that several genes which determine intelligence appear to be located on the X chromosome, the one men inherit from their mothers .Any mutation on the X chromosome has more effect on a man than a woman because a woman inherits X chromosomes from both her parents, which tends to dilute the gene’s impact.

But a man only has one X chromosome inherited from his mother, which is paired with the smaller Y chromosomes from his father.

Therefore, an intelligence-enhancing X gene has more of a chance of becoming the predominant gene, determining the man’s basic intelligence, looks and character.

It also works the other way; if the predominate gene is not as strong as it should be, the man is more likely to suffer mental retardation.

The study, said: “If the gene is the one that increases intelligence then its full effect will be seen in men, while in women the benefit is less pronounced. This explains why some men are extraordinarily intelligent.”

Study concludes that if a man wants smart sons his best bet is to marry a smart woman.

This Sounds Interesting I Guess… So Hustle up & Find Damn Brainy Brilliant Repo Lady, of course for you not for ME… Though that would be Nice. 😉

Amazing Facts : Human Tested to Limits

7What’s The Oldest Age we can Reach?

“No Single Subject is more obscured by vanity, deceit, falsehood and deliberate fraud than extreme of human longevity”

Extraordinary claims of Old age Continue to surface in the media but what, realistically is the upper Limit for the human race?

No Authentic account can be found of someone living 122 years – and only one Person ever reached this extreme age. But is this extreme age. but is this Absolute Limit of life? Continue reading

Functional Liver Tissue Can Now Be Grown From Stem Cells

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Liver “buds”—small lumps of functional three-dimensional human liver tissue—were grown from a mix of stem cells.

Stem cell research has resulted in several important breakthroughs in medicine, such as rebuilding the larynx and regenerating spinal cord connectors.

Now the liver, one of the most highly sought after organs on the donor transplant list, could get some serious stem cell assistance as well. Continue reading